IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

National carbon emissions from the industry process: Production of glass, soda ash, ammonia, calcium carbide and alumina


  • Liu, Zhu


China has become the world’s largest carbon emitter. Its total carbon emission output from fossil fuel combustion and cement production was approximately 10GtCO2 in 2013. However, less is known about carbon emissions from the production of industrial materials, such as mineral products (e.g., lime, soda ash, asphalt roofing), chemical products (e.g., ammonia, nitric acid) and metal products (e.g., iron, steel and aluminum). Carbon emissions from the production processes of these industrial products (in addition to cement production) are also less frequently reported by current international carbon emission datasets. Here we estimated the carbon emissions resulting from the manufacturing of 5 major industrial products in China, given China’s dominant position in industrial production in the world. Based on an investigation of China’s specific production processes, we devised a methodology for calculating emission factors. The results indicate that China’s total carbon emission from the production of alumina, plate glass, soda ash, ammonia and calcium carbide was 233 million tons in 2013, equivalent to the total CO2 emissions of Spain in 2013. The cumulative emissions from the manufacturing of these 5 products during the period 1990–2013 was approximately 2.5GtCO2, more than the annual total CO2 emissions of India. Thus, quantifying the emissions from industrial processes is critical for understanding the global carbon budget and developing a suitable climate policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Liu, Zhu, 2016. "National carbon emissions from the industry process: Production of glass, soda ash, ammonia, calcium carbide and alumina," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 239-244.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:166:y:2016:i:c:p:239-244
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.005

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Chang, Ching-Chih, 2010. "A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(11), pages 3533-3537, November.
    2. Liu, Zhu & Geng, Yong & Lindner, Soeren & Zhao, Hongyan & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Guan, Dabo, 2012. "Embodied energy use in China's industrial sectors," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 751-758.
    3. Liu, Zhu & Geng, Yong & Lindner, Soeren & Guan, Dabo, 2012. "Uncovering China’s greenhouse gas emission from regional and sectoral perspectives," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 1059-1068.
    4. Tan, Zhongfu & Li, Li & Wang, Jianjun & Wang, Jianhui, 2011. "Examining the driving forces for improving China’s CO2 emission intensity using the decomposing method," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 4496-4504.
    5. World Bank, 2013. "World Development Indicators 2013," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13191, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Jie & Xiong, Yiling & Tian, Xin & Liu, Shangwei & Li, Jiashuo & Tanikawa, Hiroki, 2018. "Stagnating CO2 emissions with in-depth socioeconomic transition in Beijing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 228(C), pages 1714-1725.
    2. Xiao, Hongwei & Ma, Zhongyu & Mi, Zhifu & Kelsey, John & Zheng, Jiali & Yin, Weihua & Yan, Min, 2018. "Spatio-temporal simulation of energy consumption in China's provinces based on satellite night-time light data," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 231(C), pages 1070-1078.
    3. Wang, Saige & Chen, Bin, 2018. "Three-Tier carbon accounting model for cities," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 229(C), pages 163-175.
    4. Ye, Bin & Jiang, JingJing & Li, Changsheng & Miao, Lixin & Tang, Jie, 2017. "Quantification and driving force analysis of provincial-level carbon emissions in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 198(C), pages 223-238.
    5. Nadiia Charkovska & Mariia Halushchak & Rostyslav Bun & Zbigniew Nahorski & Tomohiro Oda & Matthias Jonas & Petro Topylko, 2019. "A high-definition spatially explicit modelling approach for national greenhouse gas emissions from industrial processes: reducing the errors and uncertainties in global emission modelling," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 24(6), pages 907-939, August.
    6. Duan, Cuncun & Chen, Bin & Feng, Kuishuang & Liu, Zhu & Hayat, Tasawar & Alsaedi, Ahmed & Ahmad, Bashir, 2018. "Interregional carbon flows of China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 227(C), pages 342-352.
    7. Wu, Rui & Geng, Yong & Cui, Xiaowei & Gao, Ziyan & Liu, Zhiqing, 2019. "Reasons for recent stagnancy of carbon emissions in China's industrial sectors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 457-466.
    8. Cui, Duo & Deng, Zhu & Liu, Zhu, 2019. "China’s non-fossil fuel CO2 emissions from industrial processes," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 254(C).
    9. Zhang, You & Yuan, Zengwei & Margni, Manuele & Bulle, Cécile & Hua, Hui & Jiang, Songyan & Liu, Xuewei, 2019. "Intensive carbon dioxide emission of coal chemical industry in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 236(C), pages 540-550.
    10. Lei Liu & Ke Wang & Shanshan Wang & Ruiqin Zhang & Xiaoyan Tang, 2019. "Exploring the Driving Forces and Reduction Potential of Industrial Energy-Related CO 2 Emissions during 2001–2030: A Case Study for Henan Province, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(4), pages 1-25, February.
    11. Wang, Yutao & Yang, Xuechun & Sun, Mingxing & Ma, Lei & Li, Xiao & Shi, Lei, 2016. "Estimating carbon emissions from the pulp and paper industry: A case study," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 779-789.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ouyang, Xiaoling & Lin, Boqiang, 2015. "An analysis of the driving forces of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in China’s industrial sector," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 838-849.
    2. Lindner, Soeren & Liu, Zhu & Guan, Dabo & Geng, Yong & Li, Xin, 2013. "CO2 emissions from China’s power sector at the provincial level: Consumption versus production perspectives," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 164-172.
    3. Wang, Yafei & Zhao, Hongyan & Li, Liying & Liu, Zhu & Liang, Sai, 2013. "Carbon dioxide emission drivers for a typical metropolis using input–output structural decomposition analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 312-318.
    4. Tian, Yihui & Zhu, Qinghua & Geng, Yong, 2013. "An analysis of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in the Chinese iron and steel industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 352-361.
    5. Wang, Miao & Feng, Chao, 2018. "Decomposing the change in energy consumption in China's nonferrous metal industry: An empirical analysis based on the LMDI method," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 82(P3), pages 2652-2663.
    6. Xie, Rui & Fang, Jiayu & Liu, Cenjie, 2017. "The effects of transportation infrastructure on urban carbon emissions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 196(C), pages 199-207.
    7. Liu, Zhe & Adams, Michelle & Cote, Raymond P. & Geng, Yong & Chen, Qinghua & Liu, Weili & Sun, Lu & Yu, Xiaoman, 2017. "Comprehensive development of industrial symbiosis for the response of greenhouse gases emission mitigation: Challenges and opportunities in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 88-95.
    8. Dong, Liang & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Zhang, Hui & Dai, Ming & Fujii, Minoru & Ohnishi, Satoshi & Geng, Yong & Liu, Zhu, 2013. "Promoting low-carbon city through industrial symbiosis: A case in China by applying HPIMO model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 864-873.
    9. Shan, Yuli & Liu, Jianghua & Liu, Zhu & Xu, Xinwanghao & Shao, Shuai & Wang, Peng & Guan, Dabo, 2016. "New provincial CO2 emission inventories in China based on apparent energy consumption data and updated emission factors," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 742-750.
    10. Ye, Bin & Jiang, JingJing & Li, Changsheng & Miao, Lixin & Tang, Jie, 2017. "Quantification and driving force analysis of provincial-level carbon emissions in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 198(C), pages 223-238.
    11. Zhen, Wei & Qin, Quande & Zhong, Zhangqi & Li, Li & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2018. "Uncovering household indirect energy-saving responsibility from a sectoral perspective: An empirical analysis of Guangdong, China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 451-461.
    12. Sharimakin, Akinsehinwa, 2019. "Measuring the energy input substitution and output effects of energy price changes and the implications for the environment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    13. Hong, Jingke & Shen, Qiping & Xue, Fan, 2016. "A multi-regional structural path analysis of the energy supply chain in China's construction industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 56-68.
    14. Xu, Xianshuo & Zhao, Tao & Liu, Nan & Kang, Jidong, 2014. "Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 298-307.
    15. Wang, Miao & Feng, Chao, 2017. "Decomposition of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: An empirical analysis based on provincial panel data of three sectors," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C), pages 772-787.
    16. Adewuyi, Adeolu O. & Adeniyi, Oluwatosin, 2015. "Trade and consumption of energy varieties: Empirical analysis of selected West Africa economies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 354-366.
    17. Jiang, Jingjing & Ye, Bin & Xie, Dejun & Li, Ji & Miao, Lixin & Yang, Peng, 2017. "Sector decomposition of China’s national economic carbon emissions and its policy implication for national ETS development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 855-867.
    18. Kerui Du & Boqiang Lin & Chunping Xie, 2017. "Exploring Change in China’s Carbon Intensity: A Decomposition Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(2), pages 1-14, February.
    19. Maria Iacovou, 2013. "The relationship between incomes and living arrangements: variation between countries, over the life course, and over time," ImPRovE Working Papers 13/15, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    20. Omri, Anis, 2014. "An international literature survey on energy-economic growth nexus: Evidence from country-specific studies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 951-959.

    More about this item


    China; CO2; Industrial process; Climate policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:166:y:2016:i:c:p:239-244. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.