IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/agisys/v139y2015icp210-222.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding farm trajectories and development pathways: Two decades of change in southern Mali

Author

Listed:
  • Falconnier, Gatien N.
  • Descheemaeker, Katrien
  • Van Mourik, Thomas A.
  • Sanogo, Ousmane M.
  • Giller, Ken E.

Abstract

Institutional support for smallholders has been the motor for the expanding cotton production sector in southern Mali since the 1970s. Smallholder farms exhibit diverse resource endowments and little is known on how they benefit from and cope with changes in this institutional support. In this paper we explore farm trajectories during two decades (1994 to 2010) and their link with farm resource endowment and government support. We distinguished a favourable period for cotton production and an unfavourable period during which institutional support collapsed. A panel survey that monitored 30 farms in the Koutiala district in southern Mali over this period was analysed. Based on indicators of resource endowment and using Ascending Hierarchical Classification (AHC), farms were grouped into four types: High Resource Endowed farms with Large Herds (HRE-LH), High Resource Endowed (HRE) farms, Medium Resource Endowed (MRE) farms and Low Resource Endowed (LRE) farms. Average yield, labour productivity and food self-sufficiency status of each type were calculated. Farms remaining in the same type were classified as ‘hanging in’, while farms moving to a type of higher yields, labour productivity and food self-sufficiency status were classified as ‘stepping up’, and farms following the opposite trajectory of deteriorating farming conditions were classified as ‘falling down’. The LRE farms differed from all other farm types due to lower yields, while both LRE and HRE farms differed from the MRE and HRE-LH farm types due to a combination of less labour productivity and less food self-sufficiency. During those two decades, 17% of the farms ‘stepped up’, while 70% of the farms remained ‘hanging in’, and only 13% of the farms ‘fell down’. We found no obvious negative impact of the collapse of government support on farm trajectories. For MRE, HRE and HRE-LH farms, average N and P use intensity increased from 1994 to 2004 and then decreased during the following cotton crisis. On the other hand, organic fertilizer use intensity increased continuously over the entire monitoring period for HRE-LH and MRE farms. Crop yields did not change significantly over time for any farm type and labour productivity decreased. We discuss how technical options specific for different farm types (increase in farm equipment, sale of cereals, incorporation of legumes and intensification of milk production) and broader institutional change (improvement in finance system and infrastructure, tariffs) can enhance ‘step up’ trajectories for farming households and avoid stagnation (‘hanging in’) of the whole agricultural sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Falconnier, Gatien N. & Descheemaeker, Katrien & Van Mourik, Thomas A. & Sanogo, Ousmane M. & Giller, Ken E., 2015. "Understanding farm trajectories and development pathways: Two decades of change in southern Mali," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 210-222.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agisys:v:139:y:2015:i:c:p:210-222
    DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2015.07.005
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308521X15300093
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.agsy.2015.07.005?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hazell, Peter & Poulton, Colin & Wiggins, Steve & Dorward, Andrew, 2010. "The Future of Small Farms: Trajectories and Policy Priorities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1349-1361, October.
    2. Pachpute, J.S., 2010. "A package of water management practices for sustainable growth and improved production of vegetable crop in labour and water scarce Sub-Saharan Africa," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(9), pages 1251-1258, September.
    3. Andrieu, N. & Vayssières, J. & Corbeels, M. & Blanchard, M. & Vall, E. & Tittonell, P., 2015. "From farm scale synergies to village scale trade-offs: Cereal crop residues use in an agro-pastoral system of the Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 84-96.
    4. Laroche Dupraz, C. & Postolle, A., 2013. "Food sovereignty and agricultural trade policy commitments: How much leeway do West African nations have?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 115-125.
    5. Tittonell, P. & van Wijk, M.T. & Herrero, M. & Rufino, M.C. & de Ridder, N. & Giller, K.E., 2009. "Beyond resource constraints - Exploring the biophysical feasibility of options for the intensification of smallholder crop-livestock systems in Vihiga district, Kenya," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 101(1-2), pages 1-19, June.
    6. Michel Fok, 2010. "Facteurs d'efficacité des arrangements institutionnels en politique cotonnière africaine," Post-Print halshs-00455267, HAL.
    7. Giller, K.E. & Tittonell, P. & Rufino, M.C. & van Wijk, M.T. & Zingore, S. & Mapfumo, P. & Adjei-Nsiah, S. & Herrero, M. & Chikowo, R. & Corbeels, M. & Rowe, E.C. & Baijukya, F. & Mwijage, A. & Smith,, 2011. "Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 104(2), pages 191-203, February.
    8. Mellor, John W., 2014. "High rural population density Africa – What are the growth requirements and who participates?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 66-75.
    9. Headey, Derek D. & Jayne, T.S., 2014. "Adaptation to land constraints: Is Africa different?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 18-33.
    10. Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z. & Haggblade, Steven, 2004. "Successes in African Agriculture: Results of an Expert Survey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 745-766, May.
    11. Generoso, Rémi, 2015. "How do rainfall variability, food security and remittances interact? The case of rural Mali," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 188-198.
    12. Obare, G. A. & Omamo, S. W. & Williams, J. C., 2003. "Smallholder production structure and rural roads in Africa: the case of Nakuru District, Kenya," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 245-254, May.
    13. Kobrich, C. & Rehman, T. & Khan, M., 2003. "Typification of farming systems for constructing representative farm models: two illustrations of the application of multi-variate analyses in Chile and Pakistan," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 141-157, April.
    14. Kako Nubukpo, 2011. "L'économie politique de la réforme des filières cotonnières d'Afrique de l'Ouest et du centre : vers la convergence des modes d'organisation ?," Mondes en développement, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(3), pages 93-109.
    15. Josphat Mushongah & Ian Scoones, 2012. "Livelihood Change in Rural Zimbabwe over 20 Years," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(9), pages 1241-1257, September.
    16. Iraizoz, Belen & Gorton, Matthew & Davidova, Sophia, 2007. "Segmenting farms for analysing agricultural trajectories: A case study of the Navarra region in Spain," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 93(1-3), pages 143-169, March.
    17. Tittonell, P. & Muriuki, A. & Shepherd, K.D. & Mugendi, D. & Kaizzi, K.C. & Okeyo, J. & Verchot, L. & Coe, R. & Vanlauwe, B., 2010. "The diversity of rural livelihoods and their influence on soil fertility in agricultural systems of East Africa - A typology of smallholder farms," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 103(2), pages 83-97, February.
    18. Abdulai, Awudu & CroleRees, Anna, 2001. "Determinants of income diversification amongst rural households in Southern Mali," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 437-452, August.
    19. de Ridder, Nico & Breman, Henk & van Keulen, Herman & Stomph, Tjeerd Jan, 2004. "Revisiting a `cure against land hunger': soil fertility management and farming systems dynamics in the West African Sahel," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 109-131, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Gerrie W. J. Ven & Anne Valença & Wytze Marinus & Ilse Jager & Katrien K. E. Descheemaeker & Willem Hekman & Beyene Teklu Mellisse & Frederick Baijukya & Mwantumu Omari & Ken E. Giller, 2021. "Living income benchmarking of rural households in low-income countries," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 13(3), pages 729-749, June.
    2. Kong, Rada & Castella, Jean-Christophe, 2021. "Farmers' resource endowment and risk management affect agricultural practices and innovation capacity in the Northwestern uplands of Cambodia," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 190(C).
    3. Falconnier, Gatien N. & Descheemaeker, Katrien & Traore, Bouba & Bayoko, Arouna & Giller, Ken E., 2018. "Agricultural intensification and policy interventions: Exploring plausible futures for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 623-634.
    4. Fraval, Simon & Hammond, James & Lannerstad, Mats & Oosting, Simon J. & Sayula, George & Teufel, Nils & Silvestri, Silvia & Poole, E. Jane & Herrero, Mario & van Wijk, Mark T., 2018. "Livelihoods and food security in an urban linked, high potential region of Tanzania: Changes over a three year period," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 87-95.
    5. Huet, E.K. & Adam, M. & Giller, K.E. & Descheemaeker, K., 2020. "Diversity in perception and management of farming risks in southern Mali," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 184(C).
    6. Grillot, Myriam & Vayssières, Jonathan & Masse, Dominique, 2018. "Agent-based modelling as a time machine to assess nutrient cycling reorganization during past agrarian transitions in West Africa," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 133-151.
    7. Silva, João Vasco & Reidsma, Pytrik & Lourdes Velasco, Ma. & Laborte, Alice G. & van Ittersum, Martin K., 2018. "Intensification of rice-based farming systems in Central Luzon, Philippines: Constraints at field, farm and regional levels," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 55-70.
    8. Aravindakshan, Sreejith & Krupnik, Timothy J. & Groot, Jeroen C.J. & Speelman, Erika N. & Amjath- Babu, T.S. & Tittonell, Pablo, 2020. "Multi-level socioecological drivers of agrarian change: Longitudinal evidence from mixed rice-livestock-aquaculture farming systems of Bangladesh," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 177(C).
    9. Ollenburger, Mary H. & Descheemaeker, Katrien & Crane, Todd A. & Sanogo, Ousmane M. & Giller, Ken E., 2016. "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Agricultural intensification, extensification or stagnation in Mali's Guinea Savannah," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 58-70.
    10. Bouba Traore & Birhanu Zemadim Birhanu & Seydou Sangaré & Murali Krishna Gumma & Ramadjita Tabo & Anthony Michael Whitbread, 2021. "Contribution of Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies to Food Self-Sufficiency of Smallholder Households in Mali," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(14), pages 1-17, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Turner, Matthew D., 2020. "Assessment through socioecological abstraction: The case of nutrient management models in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C).
    2. Głębocki Benicjusz & Kacprzak Ewa & Kossowski Tomasz, 2019. "Multicriterion Typology of Agriculture: A Spatial Dependence Approach," Quaestiones Geographicae, Sciendo, vol. 38(2), pages 29-49, June.
    3. Le Gal, P.-Y. & Dugué, P. & Faure, G. & Novak, S., 2011. "How does research address the design of innovative agricultural production systems at the farm level? A review," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 104(9), pages 714-728.
    4. Pienaar, Louw & Traub, Lulama, 2015. "Understanding the smallholder farmer in South Africa: Towards a sustainable livelihoods classification," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212633, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Fatmir Guri & Ilir Kapaj & Bahri Musabelliu & Maksim Meço & Eneida Topulli & Remzi Keco & Natasha Hodaj & Shpresim Domi & Gentjan Mehmeti & Sergio Gomez y Paloma, 2015. "Characteristics of farming systems in Albania," JRC Working Papers JRC95833, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    6. Komarek, Adam M. & Bell, Lindsay W. & Whish, Jeremy P.M. & Robertson, Michael J. & Bellotti, William D., 2015. "Whole-farm economic, risk and resource-use trade-offs associated with integrating forages into crop–livestock systems in western China," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 63-72.
    7. Giller, K.E. & Tittonell, P. & Rufino, M.C. & van Wijk, M.T. & Zingore, S. & Mapfumo, P. & Adjei-Nsiah, S. & Herrero, M. & Chikowo, R. & Corbeels, M. & Rowe, E.C. & Baijukya, F. & Mwijage, A. & Smith,, 2011. "Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 104(2), pages 191-203, February.
    8. Conceição, Pedro & Levine, Sebastian & Lipton, Michael & Warren-Rodríguez, Alex, 2016. "Toward a food secure future: Ensuring food security for sustainable human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-9.
    9. Komarek, Adam M. & McDonald, Cam K. & Bell, Lindsay W. & Whish, Jeremy P.M. & Robertson, Michael J. & MacLeod, Neil D. & Bellotti, William D., 2012. "Whole-farm effects of livestock intensification in smallholder systems in Gansu, China," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 16-24.
    10. Valbuena, Diego & Tui, Sabine Homann-Kee & Erenstein, Olaf & Teufel, Nils & Duncan, Alan & Abdoulaye, Tahirou & Swain, Braja & Mekonnen, Kindu & Germaine, Ibro & Gérard, Bruno, 2015. "Identifying determinants, pressures and trade-offs of crop residue use in mixed smallholder farms in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 107-118.
    11. Falconnier, Gatien N. & Descheemaeker, Katrien & Traore, Bouba & Bayoko, Arouna & Giller, Ken E., 2018. "Agricultural intensification and policy interventions: Exploring plausible futures for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 623-634.
    12. Clifton Makate & Marshall Makate & Nelson Mango, 2019. "Wealth-related inequalities in adoption of drought-tolerant maize and conservation agriculture in Zimbabwe," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(4), pages 881-896, August.
    13. Stylianou, Andreas & Sdrali, Despina & Apostolopoulos, Constantinos D., 2020. "Capturing the diversity of Mediterranean farming systems prior to their sustainability assessment: The case of Cyprus," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C).
    14. Jayne, T.S. & Chamberlin, Jordan & Traub, Lulama & Sitko, N. & Muyanga, Milu & Yeboah, Kwame & Nkonde, Chewe & Anseeuw, Ward & Chapoto, A. & Kachule, Richard, 2015. "Africa’s Changing Farmland Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Miscellaneous Publications 208576, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    15. Steven J. Vanek & Andrew D. Jones & Laurie E. Drinkwater, 2016. "Coupling of soil regeneration, food security, and nutrition outcomes in Andean subsistence agroecosystems," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 8(4), pages 727-742, August.
    16. Hammond, Jim & Rosenblum, Nathaniel & Breseman, Dana & Gorman, Léo & Manners, Rhys & van Wijk, Mark T. & Sibomana, Milindi & Remans, Roseline & Vanlauwe, Bernard & Schut, Marc, 2020. "Towards actionable farm typologies: Scaling adoption of agricultural inputs in Rwanda," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 183(C).
    17. Ayala Wineman & Thomas S. Jayne, 2021. "Factor Market Activity and the Inverse Farm Size-Productivity Relationship in Tanzania," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 57(3), pages 443-464, March.
    18. Ronner, E. & Descheemaeker, K. & Almekinders, C. & Ebanyat, P. & Giller, K.E., 2019. "Co-design of improved climbing bean production practices for smallholder farmers in the highlands of Uganda," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 1-12.
    19. Bisrat Haile Gebrekidan & Thomas Heckelei & Sebastian Rasch, 2020. "Characterizing Farmers and Farming System in Kilombero Valley Floodplain, Tanzania," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(17), pages 1-21, August.
    20. Muyanga, Milu & Jayne, T.S., 2014. "Effects of rising rural population density on smallholder agriculture in Kenya," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 98-113.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agisys:v:139:y:2015:i:c:p:210-222. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agsy .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agsy .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.