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Shadow Economic Activities: Assessment and Minimization Problems


  • Daniyar Baizakov

    (Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 33a Abay Street, Astana 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan)

  • Anuarbek Kari

    (Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 33a, Abay Street, Astana 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan.)


In the modern context, when official national economies face permanent problems and are not always able to ensure desired living standards for population, the fight against shadow economic activities become crucial for all countries. It cannot be won without the development of a nuanced methodology for its assessment. We proposed a new methodology based on the study of different research approaches and methods regarding the assessment of shadow processes causing damage to the national budget. It might be valuable for fiscal state bodies, as well as for all law enforcement authorities, fighting against “shadow merchants.” The conclusion includes recommendations on statistical calculations of damage to the country’s budget and combating shadow economic processes. The final conclusion presents a need to improve the tax legislation and integrate these statistics agencies with the information of line ministries and institutions. The findings and recommendations have universal relevance for developed and developing countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Daniyar Baizakov & Anuarbek Kari, 2016. "Shadow Economic Activities: Assessment and Minimization Problems," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 6(4), pages 1515-1524.
  • Handle: RePEc:eco:journ1:2016-04-31

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Black, John & Hashimzade, Nigar & Myles, Gareth (ed.), 2012. "A Dictionary of Economics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 4, number 9780199696321.
    2. Douglas A. Houston, 2007. "Can Corruption Ever Improve an Economy?," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 27(3), pages 325-342, Fall.
    3. Breman, Jan, 2013. "At Work in the Informal Economy of India: A Perspective from the Bottom Up," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198090342.
    4. Coase, R. H., 1990. "The Firm, the Market, and the Law," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226111018, July.
    5. Friedrich Schneider (ed.), 2011. "Handbook on the Shadow Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13432, June.
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    More about this item


    The Shadow Economy; The Informal Economy; The Criminal Economy; The National Accounts System;

    JEL classification:

    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements


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