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Social pressure and home bias in football: evidence from Italy


  • Emmanuel Caiazzo

    (Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Naples "Federico II")

  • Claudio Chino

    (Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Naples "Federico II")

  • Raffaele Mattera

    (Department of Social and Economic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome)

  • Chiara Scarfato

    (Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Naples "Federico II")


In this paper, we follow an Instrumental Variable (IV) estimation strategy to assess the impact of crowd effects on the outcomes of the Italian Serie A matches. We use weather conditions to instrument for crowd attendance. We verify the validity of our identification strategy by taking advantage of matches played during the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. We find that crowd effects have a positive impact on the home team performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Emmanuel Caiazzo & Claudio Chino & Raffaele Mattera & Chiara Scarfato, 2022. "Social pressure and home bias in football: evidence from Italy," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 42(2), pages 1081-1091.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-22-00021

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Endrich, Marek & Gesche, Tobias, 2020. "Home-bias in referee decisions: Evidence from “Ghost Matches” during the Covid19-Pandemic," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 197(C).
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    More about this item


    Sport Economics; Fans support; Football match; Soccer; Home bias; Home advantage; Instrumental Variable;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L8 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services
    • C9 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments


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