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Social Pressure in Football Matches: An Event Study of "Remote Matches" in Japan

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  • ARAKI Shota
  • MORITA Hiroshi

Abstract

We examine the effect of social pressure on the outcomes of football matches by assessing those matches that did not have spectators as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. From the results of 768 matches with 43 unattended matches in Japan's top two divisions for the 2020 season, we find significant evidence of referee bias due to social pressure by the home team's supporters. With spectators in the stadium, the number of fouls awarded to home teams decreases significantly by about 1.05. In addition, we find that the absolute number of spectators is more dominant as a cause of referee bias than the share of the home team's supporters in the stadium, by estimating a model that considers the restricted stadium capacity amid the pandemic.

Suggested Citation

  • ARAKI Shota & MORITA Hiroshi, 2021. "Social Pressure in Football Matches: An Event Study of "Remote Matches" in Japan," Discussion papers 21095, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:21095
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    1. Endrich, Marek & Gesche, Tobias, 2020. "Home-bias in referee decisions: Evidence from “Ghost Matches” during the Covid19-Pandemic," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 197(C).
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    Cited by:

    1. Brad R. Humphreys & Alexander Marsella & Levi Perez, 2022. "The effect of monitoring and crowds on crime and law enforcement: A natural experiment from European football," Working Papers 22-08, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.

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