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Innovationspolitischer Mehrwert durch Vernetzung?: Cluster- und Netzwerkförderung als Politikinstrument auf Bundes- und Länderebene

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  • Michael Rothgang
  • Bernhard Lageman

Abstract

Innovation policies in both old and new industrial countries increasingly promote regional clusters and distributed networks. Public financing of cluster and networks of business firms, research institutions and other organizations is based on the observation that networking plays an increasing role in technological progress. This paper analyses the German cluster and networks programs which receive funding by the Federal Government or the Federal states. About 300 state-sponsored cluster and network initiatives currently address technological topics. The comparison between new cluster and network initiatives and older innovation networks which developed under the umbrella of the Industrial Collaborative Research program shows some remarkable similarities as well as differences. Evaluation studies for these programs mostly show positive results in respect to the economic output of these programs. But there are limits to the quantitative evaluation of the impacts of these programs. These are due to the emergent character of the targeted developments, the complex impact patterns and the considerable time-lags of state financing. The role of the spatial dimension (promoting regional cluster or more regionally distributed networks) for the efficiency of state promotion is still open to scientific debate. Die Förderung von Clustern und Netzwerken ist zu einem zentralen Instrument der Innovationspolitik der alten wie der neuen Industrieländer geworden. Sie gründet sich auf die Beobachtung, dass technologische Fortschritte in der Wissensgesellschaft zunehmend auf dem Zusammenwirken von Unternehmen und Forschungseinrichtungen beruhen. Der Beitrag untersucht die deutsche, von Bund und Ländern getragene Cluster- und Netzwerkförderung. Etwa 300 staatlich geförderte Cluster- und Netzwerkinitiativen widmen sich derzeit technologischen Fragen. Der Vergleich neuerer Cluster- und Netzwerkinitiativen mit den unter dem Dach der industriellen Gemeinschaftsforschung entstandenen Innovationsnetzwerken fördert bemerkenswerte Gemeinsamkeiten, aber auch Unterschiede zutage. Die vorliegenden Evaluationen stellen den Cluster- und Netzwerkprogrammen zwar überwiegend ein positives Zeugnis aus. Die exakte quantitative Erfassung der Wirkungen solcher Programme stößt aber auf erhebliche methodische Probleme, die insbesondere in dem emergenten Charakter der anzustoßenden Entwicklungen, der Komplexität der Wirkungsmuster und der Langwierigkeit der angestrebten Effekte begründet sind. Forschungsbedarf besteht unter anderem hinsichtlich der räumlichen Dimensionierung der geförderten Netzwerkinitiativen.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Rothgang & Bernhard Lageman, 2011. "Innovationspolitischer Mehrwert durch Vernetzung?: Cluster- und Netzwerkförderung als Politikinstrument auf Bundes- und Länderebene," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 80(3), pages 143-166.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:80-3-9
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    File URL: http://ejournals.duncker-humblot.de/doi/pdf/10.3790/vjh.80.3.143
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Oliver Falck & Stephan Heblich & Stefan Kipar, 2008. "The Extension of Clusters: Difference-in-Differences Evidence from the Bavarian State-Wide Cluster Policy," CESifo Working Paper Series 2463, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Rune Dahl Fitjar & Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, 2014. "When local interaction does not suffice: sources of firm innovation in urban Norway," Chapters,in: Regional Development and Proximity Relations, chapter 5, pages 195-222 Edward Elgar Publishing.
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    7. Jappe-Heinze, Arlette & Baier, Elisabeth & Kroll, Henning, 2008. "Clusterpolitik: Kriterien für die Evaluation von regionalen Clusterinitiativen," Working Papers "Firms and Region" R3/2008, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Helbach, Christoph & Keldenich, Klemens & Rothgang, Michael & Yang, Guanzhong, 2012. "Call Me if You Can – An Experimental Investigation of Information Sharing in Knowledge Networks," Ruhr Economic Papers 332, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    2. repec:zbw:rwirep:0332 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Christoph Helbach & Klemens Keldenich & Michael Rothgang & Guanzhong Yang, 2012. "Call Me if You Can – An Experimental Investigation of Information Sharing in Knowledge Networks," Ruhr Economic Papers 0332, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    4. Alexander Ebner & Fabian Bocek, 2015. "Best Practices as to How to Support Investment in Intangible Assets," WWWforEurope Working Papers series 101, WWWforEurope.
    5. Alexander S. Kritikos & Anne Konrad, 2011. "Der Forschungsstandort Deutschland nach der Krise: Editorial," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 80(3), pages 5-12.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Technology policy; knowledge net works; clusters;

    JEL classification:

    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • O25 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Industrial Policy

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