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Expert Opinion and Bordeaux Wine Prices: An Attempt to Correct Biases in Subjective Judgments


  • Cardebat, Jean-Marie
  • Figuet, Jean-Marc
  • Paroissien, Emmanuel


The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of expert opinion on the pricing of Bordeaux wines. To this end, we compile an original dataset including (1) retail prices, (2) scores attributed to wines from France, Spain, and the United States by nine experts from 2000 to 2010, and (3) the meteorological conditions under which the grapes were produced. With this dataset, we aim to determine the presence of bias rooted in the subjectivity of the experts. We assume that the expert wine scores have two main components: (1) an objective one that is driven by the fundamentals of wine production (the quality of soil, producers' skills, and climate conditions) and (2) a subjective one that is determined by the individual opinion of the experts. We use control function techniques to compare the respective impacts of these two factors and find that prices are influenced more deeply by the fundamental quality of the wine than they are by the judge's subjectivity. Furthermore, we notice the great impact of “highest ratings†on pricing, which we interpret as a “marketing effect†: the most favorable score is likely to be the most publicized, which influences the price of the respective wine. (JEL Classifications: C21, D89, L15)

Suggested Citation

  • Cardebat, Jean-Marie & Figuet, Jean-Marc & Paroissien, Emmanuel, 2014. "Expert Opinion and Bordeaux Wine Prices: An Attempt to Correct Biases in Subjective Judgments," Journal of Wine Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(3), pages 282-303, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jwecon:v:9:y:2014:i:03:p:282-303_00

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    Cited by:

    1. B. Faye & E. Le Fur & S. Prat, 2015. "Dynamics of fine wine and asset prices: evidence from short- and long-run co-movements," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(29), pages 3059-3077, June.
    2. Fabien Candau & Florent Deisting & Julie Schlick, 2017. "How Income and Crowding Effects Influence the World Market for French Wines," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(5), pages 963-977, May.
    3. Edward Oczkowski, 2016. "Analysing Firm-level Price Effects for Differentiated Products: The Case of Australian Wine Producers," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 43-62, March.
    4. Liang, Jiaji & Hu, Wuyang, 2018. "Hedonic Price Analysis: A View of the Wine Industry in Kentucky," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274050, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Paroissien, Emmanuel, 2016. "Solving for a Bias in the Standardized Expert Wine Score," Working Papers 231132, American Association of Wine Economists.
    6. Adrian Fernandez-Perez & Bart Frijns & Alireza Tourani-Rad & Jean-Philippe Weisskopf, 2019. "Behavioural heterogeneity in wine investments," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(30), pages 3236-3255, June.
    7. Masset, Philippe & Weisskopf, Jean-Philippe & Faye, Benoît & Le Fur, Eric, 2016. "Red obsession: The ascent of fine wine in China," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 200-225.
    8. Jean-Marie Cardebat & Paola Corsinovi & Davide Gaeta, 2018. "Do Top 100 wine lists provide consumers with better information?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 38(2), pages 983-994.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • D89 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Other
    • L15 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Information and Product Quality


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