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Once Bitten: The Effect of IMF Programs on Subsequent Reserve Behavior

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  • Graham Bird
  • Alex Mandilaras

Abstract

Traditional models have encountered problems in explaining the ac- cumulation of international reserves, particularly in Asia, in the period since the late 1990s. One suggestion has been that countries have sought to self insure against future crises, either because of a perceived increase in the cost of crises or because of the perceived conditionality costs of using IMF credits. This paper others an empirical investigation of these ideas, disaggregating across regions and across IMF facilities. Using both static and dynamic regression techniques we find that IMF pro- grams have had a significant positive effect on subsequent reserve accu- mulation, allowing for other determinants, and that this effect endures over time. We also find that the effect differs between Latin America and Asia, and that it is not simply a phenomenon that is associated with the Asian crisis of 1997/98. The paper goes on to discuss the implications for the design of policy and for the reform of the IMF.
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Suggested Citation

  • Graham Bird & Alex Mandilaras, 2011. "Once Bitten: The Effect of IMF Programs on Subsequent Reserve Behavior," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(2), pages 264-278, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:rdevec:v:15:y:2011:i:2:p:264-278
    DOI: j.1467-9361.2011.00607.x
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1467-9361.2011.00607.x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Eichengreen, Barry & Rose, Andrew K & Wyplosz, Charles, 1996. "Contagious Currency Crises," CEPR Discussion Papers 1453, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Maurice Obstfeld & Jay C. Shambaugh & Alan M. Taylor, 2010. "Financial Stability, the Trilemma, and International Reserves," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 57-94, April.
    3. Aizenman, Joshua & Marion, Nancy, 2003. "The high demand for international reserves in the Far East: What is going on?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 370-400, September.
    4. Graham Bird & Ramkishen Rajan, 2003. "Too Much of a Good Thing? The Adequacy of International Reserves in the Aftermath of Crises," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(6), pages 873-891, June.
    5. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 1-48.
    6. Bird, Graham & Hussain, Mumtaz & Joyce, Joseph P., 2004. "Many happy returns? Recidivism and the IMF," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 231-251, March.
    7. Graham Bird & Alex Mandilaras, 2010. "Revisiting Mrs. Machlup's wardrobe: the accumulation of international reserves, 1992-2001," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(5), pages 467-471.
    8. Maurice Obstfeld & Jay C. Shambaugh & Alan M. Taylor, 2009. "Financial Instability, Reserves, and Central Bank Swap Lines in the Panic of 2008," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 480-486, May.
    9. Menzie D. Chinn & Hiro Ito, 2002. "Capital Account Liberalization, Institutions and Financial Development: Cross Country Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8967, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Beck, Thorsten & Clarke, George & Groff, Alberto & Keefer, Philip & Walsh, Patrick, 2000. "New tools and new tests in comparative political economy - the database of political institutions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2283, The World Bank.
    11. Graham Bird, 2009. "Reforming IMF Conditionality," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 10(3), pages 81-104, July.
    12. Graham Bird, 2007. "The Imf: A Bird'S Eye View Of Its Role And Operations," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 683-745, September.
    13. repec:hrv:faseco:34721963 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. Steiner, Andreas, 2013. "How central banks prepare for financial crises – An empirical analysis of the effects of crises and globalisation on international reserves," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 208-234.
    2. ., 2016. "Introduction and overview: the purposes and operations of the IMF," Chapters,in: The International Monetary Fund, chapter 1, pages 1-18 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Joseph Joyce & Raul Razo-Garcia, 2011. "Reserves, quotas and the demand for international liquidity," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 393-413, September.
    4. Beatrice D. Scheubel & Livio Stracca, 2016. "What Do We Know About the Global Financial Safety Net? A New Comprehensive Data Set," CESifo Working Paper Series 6184, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Irina Andone & Beatrice D. Scheubel, 2017. "Memorable Encounters? Own and Neighbours' Experience with IMF Conditionality and IMF Stigma," CESifo Working Paper Series 6399, CESifo Group Munich.
    6. Stracca, Livio & Scheubel, Beatrice, 2016. "What do we know about the global financial safety net? Rationale, data and possible evolution," Occasional Paper Series 177, European Central Bank.

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    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance

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