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An Empirical Investigation of Market Structure, Efficiency, and Performance in Property-Liability Insurance

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  • Byeongyong Paul Choi
  • Mary A. Weiss

Abstract

This study examines the relationships among market structure and performance in property-liability insurers over the period 1992-1998 using data at the company and group levels. Three specific hypotheses are tested: traditional structure-conduct-performance, relative market power, and efficient structure (ES). The results provide support for the ES hypothesis. The ES hypothesis posits that more efficient firms can charge lower prices than competitors, enabling them to capture larger market shares and economic rents, leading to increased concentration. Both revenue and cost efficiency are used in the analysis, and this is the first study to use revenue efficiency in this type of analysis. The results for the sample period as a whole and by year are consistent. The overall results suggest that cost-efficient firms charge lower prices and earn higher profits, in conformance with the ES hypothesis. On the other hand, prices and profits are found to be higher for revenue-efficient firms. Revenue X-efficiency is derived from activities such as cross-selling and may rely heavily on the use of detailed information from customer databases to identify potential customers. The implications of this research are that regulators should be more concerned with efficiency (both cost and revenue) rather than the market power that arises from the consolidation activity taking place in insurance. Copyright The Journal of Risk and Insurance.

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  • Byeongyong Paul Choi & Mary A. Weiss, 2005. "An Empirical Investigation of Market Structure, Efficiency, and Performance in Property-Liability Insurance," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 72(4), pages 635-673.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jrinsu:v:72:y:2005:i:4:p:635-673
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    Cited by:

    1. J. Augusto Felício & Carlos Robalo Freire, 2016. "From customer motivation to corporate performance. The role of strategic factors and distribution channels of financial service firms," Service Business, Springer;Pan-Pacific Business Association, pages 135-157.
    2. Shaik, Saleem & Allen, Albert J. & Edwards, Seanicaa & Harris, James, 2009. "Market Structure Conduct Performance Hypothesis Revisited Using Stochastic Frontier Efficiency Analysis," Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, Transportation Research Forum, vol. 48(3).
    3. Weiss, Mary A. & Choi, Byeongyong Paul, 2008. "State regulation and the structure, conduct, efficiency and performance of US auto insurers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 134-156, January.
    4. Di Falco, Salvatore & Capitanio, Fabian & Adinolfi, Felice, 2011. "Natural Vs Financial Insurance in the Management of Weather Risk Exposure in the Italian Agriculture," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114325, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Walid Bahloul & Abdelfettah Bouri, 2016. "The Efficiency of the European Non-Life Insurance: CEO Power, Macroeconomic, and Market Characteristics Impact," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(1), pages 1-13, March.
    6. Patricia H. Born & Barbara Klimaszewski-Blettner, 2013. "Should I Stay or Should I Go? The Impact of Natural Disasters and Regulation on U.S. Property Insurers’ Supply Decisions," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 80(1), pages 1-36, March.
    7. Eling, Martin & Jia, Ruo & Schaper, Philipp, 2017. "Get the Balance Right: A Simultaneous Equation Model to Analyze Growth, Profitability, and Safety," Working Papers on Finance 1716, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    8. Oetzel, Jennifer M. & Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh, 2008. "A case of the tortoise versus the hare? Deregulation process, timing, and firm performance in emerging markets," International Business Review, Elsevier, pages 54-77.
    9. Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin & Jia, Ruo, 2017. "The structure of the global reinsurance market: An analysis of efficiency, scale, and scope," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 213-229.
    10. Byeongyong Paul Choi & Elyas Elyasiani, 2011. "Foreign-owned insurer performance in the US property-liability markets," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(3), pages 291-306.
    11. repec:spr:eurase:v:7:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s40822-017-0080-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Geoffroy Enjolras & Patrick Sentis, 2008. "The main determinants of insurance purchase. An empirical study on crop insurance policies in France," Working Papers 08-06, LAMETA, Universtiy of Montpellier, revised Apr 2008.
    13. Cummins, J. David & Rubio-Misas, María & Vencappa, Dev, 2017. "Competition, efficiency and soundness in European life insurance markets," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, pages 66-78.
    14. Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin & Jia, Ruo, 2016. "The Roles of Industry Idiosyncrasy, Cost Efficiency, and Risk in Internationalization: Evidence from the Insurance Industry," Working Papers on Finance 1602, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    15. Fenn, Paul & Vencappa, Dev & Diacon, Stephen & Klumpes, Paul & O'Brien, Chris, 2008. "Market structure and the efficiency of European insurance companies: A stochastic frontier analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 86-100, January.
    16. J. Cummins & Xiaoying Xie, 2013. "Efficiency, productivity, and scale economies in the U.S. property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, pages 141-164.
    17. Saowaros Yaisawarng & Preecha Asavadachanukorn & Suthathip Yaisawarng, 2014. "Efficiency and productivity in the Thai non-life insurance industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, pages 291-306.
    18. Jarraya, Bilel & Bouri, Abdelfettah, 2012. "Efficiency concept and investigations in insurance industry: A survey," MPRA Paper 53544, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
    19. Elango, B., 2009. "Minimizing effects of 'liability of foreignness': Response strategies of foreign firms in the United States," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, pages 51-62.
    20. Jacob A. Bikker, 2017. "Competition and Scale Economy Effects of the Dutch 2006 Health-Care Insurance Reform," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 42(1), pages 53-78, January.
    21. repec:pal:gpprii:v:42:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1057_s41288-017-0045-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Schaper, Philipp, 2017. "Under pressure: how the business environment affects productivity and efficiency of European life insurance companiesAuthor-Name: Eling, Martin," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, pages 1082-1094.
    23. repec:gam:jijfss:v:4:y:2016:i:1:p:4:d:64800 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Chen-Ying Lee, 2014. "The effects of firm specific factors and macroeconomics on profitability of property-liability insurance industry in Taiwan," Journal of Business & Management (COES&RJ-JBM), , vol. 2(1), pages 221-227, January.
    25. repec:spr:jqecon:v:15:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s40953-016-0061-4 is not listed on IDEAS

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