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Vertical Enclosure: Vertical Integration and the Reluctance to Purchase from a Competitor

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  • D. Lee Heavner

Abstract

Vertical integration can reduce integrating firms' trading opportunities and, contrary to predictions of two-firm models, this loss of trade can make integration unprofitable. If downstream units must commit to suppliers before contracting on the final terms of trade, then suppliers will have ex-post monopoly power. This monopoly power reduces the quality that an integrated supplier will provide to its competitors. Expectations of this quality reduction can prevent firms from purchasing from an integrated supplier even though the supplier would be better off if it could commit to provide its downstream competitors with sufficient quality to retain their business. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2004.

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  • D. Lee Heavner, 2004. "Vertical Enclosure: Vertical Integration and the Reluctance to Purchase from a Competitor," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 179-199, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jindec:v:52:y:2004:i:2:p:179-199
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    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Yutian & Dubey, Pradeep & Sen, Debapriya, 2011. "Outsourcing induced by strategic competition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 484-492, July.
    2. Yutian Chen, 2010. "Strategic Outsourcing between Rivals," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 11(2), pages 301-311, November.
    3. Yutian Chen & Debapriya Sen, 2015. "Strategic Outsourcing Under Economies Of Scale," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(2), pages 134-145, April.
    4. G. Rossini, 2005. "Pitfalls in private and social incentives of vertical crossborder outsourcing," Working Papers 536, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    5. Sapi, Geza, 2012. "Bargaining, vertical mergers and entry," DICE Discussion Papers 61, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    6. Chen, Yongmin & Sappington, David E.M., 2009. "Designing input prices to motivate process innovation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 390-402, May.
    7. Kerem Cakirer, 2007. "A Fixed Effect Model of Endogenous Integration Decision and Its Competitive Effects," Working Papers 2007-18, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
    8. Arya, Anil & Mittendorf, Brian & Sappington, David E.M., 2008. "Outsourcing, vertical integration, and price vs. quantity competition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 1-16, January.

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