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Wilhelm Röpke and Richard C. Koo On Secondary Deflations and Balance Sheet Recessions


  • Andreas Hardhaug Olsen


The concept of a ‘secondary deflation’ was developed in the 1930s by the German economist Wilhelm Röpke, who saw it as something different from a normal depression. While a primary deflation is a necessary reaction to the inflation from a boom period, a secondary deflation is independent and economically purposeless. Röpke argued that secondary depressions occurred in the US, Germany, France and Switzerland during the 1930s, but was vague on what made them follow primary depressions. Recently, the Taiwanese–American economist Richard C. Koo has claimed to have discovered the ‘Holy Grail of macroeconomics’, that is, what made the Great Depression so deep and long. During the Great Depression, the bursting of the asset price bubble resulted in private sectors having more debt than assets; as they shifted from maximising profits to minimising debt, the consequent debt deflation shrank the economy. According to Koo, Western economies today are suffering from a similar ‘balance sheet recession’. Strengthened by the notion of a balance sheet recession, Röpke's long-lost insights might advance our understanding of the business cycle in general and the present crisis in the US and the Eurozone in particular.

Suggested Citation

  • Andreas Hardhaug Olsen, 2015. "Wilhelm Röpke and Richard C. Koo On Secondary Deflations and Balance Sheet Recessions," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(2), pages 215-224, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:ecaffa:v:35:y:2015:i:2:p:215-224

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Richard Koo, 2011. "The World in Balance Sheet Recession," Ensayos Económicos, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department, vol. 1(63), pages 7-39, July - Se.
    2. Bernanke, Ben S, 1995. "The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(1), pages 1-28, February.
    3. Guillermo Calvo, 2013. "Puzzling over the Anatomy of Crises: Liquidity and the Veil of Finance," IMES Discussion Paper Series 13-E-09, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
    4. Samuelson, Paul A., 2009. "A few remembrances of Friedrich von Hayek (1899-1992)," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 1-4, January.
    5. John B. Taylor, 2009. "The Financial Crisis and the Policy Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong," NBER Working Papers 14631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Claudio Borio & Piti Disyatat, 2011. "Global imbalances and the financial crisis: Link or no link?," BIS Working Papers 346, Bank for International Settlements.
    7. Guillermo A. Calvo, 2013. "The Mayekawa Lecture: Puzzling over the Anatomy of Crises- Liquidity and the Veil of Finance," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 31, pages 39-64, November.
    8. Steve Horwitz, 2011. "Contrasting Concepts of Capital: Yet Another Look at the Hayek-Keynes Debate," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 27(Fall 2011), pages 9-27.
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