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Factors Influencing Wheat Yield and Variability: Evidence from Manitoba, Canada

Author

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  • Carew, Richard
  • Smith, Elwin G.
  • Grant, Cynthia

Abstract

Production functions to explain regional wheat yields have not been studied extensively in the Canadian prairies. The objective of this study is to employ a Just-Pope production function to examine the relationship between fertilizer inputs, soil quality, biodiversity indicators, cultivars qualifying for Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR), and climatic conditions on the mean and variance of spring wheat yields. Using regional-level wheat data from Manitoba, Canada, model results show nitrogen fertilizer, temporal diversity, and PBR wheat cultivars are associated with increased yield variance. Mean wheat yield is reduced by the proportion of land in wheat, the interaction of growing temperature and precipitation, and spatial diversity. By contrast, higher soil quality and PBR wheat cultivars increase mean yield. The wheat yield increases attributed to PBR range from 37.2 (1.4%) to 54.5 kg/ha (2.0%). Plant Breeders’ Rights may have enhanced royalties from increased certified seed sales, but the benefits in terms of higher wheat yield or lower yield variability are limited. Future research is required to understand the interactive effects of fertilization practices, genetic diversity, and environmental conditions on regional wheat yield stability.

Suggested Citation

  • Carew, Richard & Smith, Elwin G. & Grant, Cynthia, 2009. "Factors Influencing Wheat Yield and Variability: Evidence from Manitoba, Canada," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 41(03), December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:joaaec:56649
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56649
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Cecilia Bellora & Élodie Blanc & Jean-Marc Bourgeon & Eric Strobl, 2017. "Estimating the Impact of Crop Diversity on Agricultural Productivity in South Africa," NBER Chapters,in: Understanding Productivity Growth in Agriculture National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Zulfiqar, Farhad, 2010. "Estimation of Wheat Yield Response under different Economic, Location and Climatic Conditions in Punjab," MPRA Paper 26503, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Hervouet, Adrien & Langinier, Corinne, 2015. "Plant Breeders’ Rights, Patents and Incentives to Innovate," Working Papers 2015-7, University of Alberta, Department of Economics.
    4. Lee, Heera & Bogner, Christina & Lee, Saem & Koellner, Thomas, 2016. "Crop selection under price and yield fluctuation: Analysis of agro-economic time series from South Korea," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 1-11.
    5. Barnwal, Prabhat & Kotani, Koji, 2013. "Climatic impacts across agricultural crop yield distributions: An application of quantile regression on rice crops in Andhra Pradesh, India," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 95-109.
    6. Kolady, Deepthi & Spielman, David J. & Cavalieri, Anthony J., 2010. "Intellectual property rights, private investment in research, and productivity growth in Indian agriculture: A review of evidence and options," IFPRI discussion papers 1031, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. Pavlova, Vera N. & Varcheva, Svetlana E. & Bokusheva, Raushan & Calanca, Pierluigi, 2014. "Modelling the effects of climate variability on spring wheat productivity in the steppe zone of Russia and Kazakhstan," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 277(C), pages 57-67.
    8. Ali D. Cagdas & Scott R. Jeffrey & Elwin G. Smith & Peter C. Boxall, 2016. "Environmental Stewardship and Technical Efficiency in Canadian Prairie Canola Production," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 64(3), pages 455-477, September.
    9. Joshi, Niraj Prakash & Maharjan, Keshav Lall & Piya, Luni, 2011. "Effect of climate variables on yield of major food-crops in Nepal -A time-series analysis-," MPRA Paper 35379, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Cagdas, Ali D. & Jeffrey, Scott R. & Smith, Elwin G. & Boxall, Peter C., 2013. "Adoption of BMPs and technical inefficiency in Canadian canola production," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150200, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    11. Spielman, David J. & Smale, Melinda, 2017. "Policy options to accelerate variety change among smallholder farmers in South Asia and Africa South of the Sahara," IFPRI discussion papers 1666, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    12. Santosh Poudel & Koji Kotani, 2013. "Climatic impacts on crop yield and its variability in Nepal: do they vary across seasons and altitudes?," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 116(2), pages 327-355, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    climate; fertilizer; Manitoba; Plant Breeders’ Rights; production risk; wheat; yield; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis; Risk and Uncertainty; O18; Q16;

    JEL classification:

    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • Q16 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services

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