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Incorporating Environmental Impacts in the Measurement of Agricultural Productivity Growth

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  • Ball, V. Eldon
  • Lovell, C.A. Knox
  • Luu, H.
  • Nehring, Richard F.

Abstract

Agricultural production is known to have environmental impacts, both adverse and beneficial, and it is desirable to incorporate at least some of these impacts in an environmentally sensitive productivity index. In this paper, we construct indicators of water contamination from the use of agricultural chemicals. These environmental indicators are merged with data on marketed outputs and purchased inputs to form a state-by-year panel of relative levels of outputs and inputs, including environmental impacts. We do not have prices for these undesirable by products, since they are not marketed. Consequently, we calculate a series of Malmquist productivity indexes, which do not require price information. Our benchmark scenario is a conventional Malmquist productivity index based on marketed outputs and purchased inputs only. Our comparison scenarios consist of environmentally sensitive Malmquist productivity indexes that include indicators of risk to human health and to aquatic life from chronic exposure to pesticides. In addition, we derive a set of virtual prices of the undesirable by-products that can be used to calculate an environmentally sensitive Fisher index of productivity change.

Suggested Citation

  • Ball, V. Eldon & Lovell, C.A. Knox & Luu, H. & Nehring, Richard F., 2004. "Incorporating Environmental Impacts in the Measurement of Agricultural Productivity Growth," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 29(3), pages 1-25, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:jlaare:30911
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.30911
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. George C. Davis & Ni Lin & C. Richard Shumway, 2000. "Aggregation without Separability: Tests of the United States and Mexican Agricultural Production Data," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(1), pages 214-230.
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    8. V. Eldon Ball & Frank M. Gollop & Alison Kelly-Hawke & Gregory P. Swinand, 1999. "Patterns of State Productivity Growth in the U.S. Farm Sector: Linking State and Aggregate Models," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(1), pages 164-179.
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