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20 years of transition – institutional reforms and the adaptation of production in Estonian agriculture


  • Viira, Ants-Hannes
  • Poder, Anne
  • Varnik, Rando


This article provides an overview of the most important reforms, their background, and corresponding changes in Estonian agriculture during the transition period from 1988-2008. The past two decades have been divided into three sub-periods to outline differences in dynamics and the direction of changes in agriculture. From 1988-1995, the main reforms were implemented and agricultural production decreased rapidly. From 1995-2001, the decline stabilised and nonviable farms exited the sector. From 2001 onwards, the positive effects of the EU pre-accession period and EU membership can be observed. Das Ziel des vorliegenden Artikels ist es, einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Veränderungen in der estnischen Landwirtschaft im Transformationszeitraum 1988-2008 zu geben. In den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten gab es drei Entwicklungsperioden. 1988-1995 wurden die wichtigsten Reformen durchgeführt, und die landwirtschaftliche Produktion ist stark gesunken. 1995-2001 hat sich der Rückgang stabilisiert, der Sektor war teilweise nicht lebensfähig, und private Betriebe haben den Sektor verlassen. Seit 2001 kann man die positiven Auswirkungen des EU-Beitritts auf die Landwirtschaft beobachten.

Suggested Citation

  • Viira, Ants-Hannes & Poder, Anne & Varnik, Rando, 2009. "20 years of transition – institutional reforms and the adaptation of production in Estonian agriculture," German Journal of Agricultural Economics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department for Agricultural Economics, vol. 58(7).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:gjagec:134882

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sarris, Alexander H & Doucha, Tomas & Mathijs, Erik, 1999. "Agricultural Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for Competitiveness and Rural Development," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 26(3), pages 305-329, August.
    2. J.R. Davis, 1997. "Understanding the Process of Decollectivization and Agricultural Privatisation in Transition Economies: The Distribution of Collective and State Farm Assets in Latvia and Lithuania," CERT Discussion Papers 9709, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
    3. Johan F. M. Swinnen, 1999. "The political economy of land reform choices in Central and Eastern Europe," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 7(3), pages 637-664, November.
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