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Adjustment Time, Capital Malleability and Policy Cost


  • Henry D. Jacoby
  • Ian Sue Wing


The cost of meeting Kyoto-style emissions reductions is heavily dependent on the malleability of an economy's stock of capital and the number of years available for adjustment. Each year of delay introduces more emissionproducing activities that must be squeezed out of the system and shortens the time horizon for change, raising the carbon price required to produce the needed changes in capital structure. The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Assessment model is used to explore the effects of uncertainty in the degree of capital malleability in the short run, and to analyze how implied carbon prices vary depending on the time of credible commitment to emissions targets.

Suggested Citation

  • Henry D. Jacoby & Ian Sue Wing, 1999. "Adjustment Time, Capital Malleability and Policy Cost," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 73-92.
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:1999si-a04

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    Cited by:

    1. Steinbuks, Jevgenijs & Narayanan, Badri G., 2015. "Fossil fuel producing economies have greater potential for industrial interfuel substitution," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 168-177.
    2. Hauch, Jens, 2003. "Electricity trade and CO2 emission reductions in the Nordic countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 509-526, September.
    3. Jacoby, Henry D. & Reilly, John M. & McFarland, James R. & Paltsev, Sergey, 2006. "Technology and technical change in the MIT EPPA model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(5-6), pages 610-631, November.
    4. Wing, Ian Sue, 2006. "The synthesis of bottom-up and top-down approaches to climate policy modeling: Electric power technologies and the cost of limiting US CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3847-3869, December.
    5. Barbara Buchner & Marzio Galeotti, 2003. "Climate Policy and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," Working Papers 2003.91, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    6. Mark K. Jaccard & John Nyboer & Crhis Bataille & Bryn Sadownik, 2003. "Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Definitions and Long-Run Cost Dynamics," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 49-73.
    7. Baker, Erin, 2005. "Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment: global climate change," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 19-40, January.
    8. Babiker, Mustafa & Reilly, John M. & Jacoby, Henry D., 2000. "The Kyoto Protocol and developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 525-536, July.
    9. Worrell, Ernst & Biermans, Gijs, 2005. "Move over! Stock turnover, retrofit and industrial energy efficiency," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 949-962, May.
    10. McFarland, J. R. & Reilly, J. M. & Herzog, H. J., 2004. "Representing energy technologies in top-down economic models using bottom-up information," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 685-707, July.
    11. Pang, Rui-zhi & Deng, Zhong-qi & Chiu, Yung-ho, 2015. "Pareto improvement through a reallocation of carbon emission quotas," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 419-430.
    12. Steinbuks, Jevgenijs & Neuhoff, Karsten, 2014. "Assessing energy price induced improvements in efficiency of capital in OECD manufacturing industries," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 340-356.
    13. Viguier, Laurent L. & Babiker, Mustafa H. & Reilly, John M., 2003. "The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 459-481, April.
    14. Sergey PALTSEV & John REILLY & Trent YANG, "undated". "Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment," EcoMod2004 330600109, EcoMod.

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    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General


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