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CO2 Emissions Limits: Economic Adjustments and the Distribution of Burdens


  • Henry D. Jacoby
  • Richard S. Eckaus
  • A. Denny Ellerman
  • Ronald G. Prinn
  • David M. Reiner
  • Zili Yang


Policies under consideration within the Climate Convention would impose CO2 controls on only a subset of nations. A model of economic growth and emissions, coupled to an analysis of the climate system, is used to explore the consequences of a sample proposal of this type. The results show how economic burdens are likely to be distributed among nations, how carbon "leakage" may counteract the reductions attained, and how policy costs may be influenced by emissions trading. We explore the sensitivity of results to uncertainty in key underlying assumptions, including the influence on economic impacts and on the policy contribution to long-term climate goals.

Suggested Citation

  • Henry D. Jacoby & Richard S. Eckaus & A. Denny Ellerman & Ronald G. Prinn & David M. Reiner & Zili Yang, 1997. "CO2 Emissions Limits: Economic Adjustments and the Distribution of Burdens," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 31-58.
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:1997v18-03-a02

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    Cited by:

    1. Huifang Tian & John Whalley, 2009. "Level versus Equivalent Intensity Carbon Mitigation Commitments," NBER Working Papers 15370, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Satoru Kasahara & Sergey Paltsev & John Reilly & Henry Jacoby & A. Ellerman, 2007. "Climate Change Taxes and Energy Efficiency in Japan," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 37(2), pages 377-410, June.
    3. Grubb, Michael, 2001. "Who's afraid of atmospheric stabilisation? Making the link between energy resources and climate change," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 837-845, September.
    4. Fæhn, Taran & Bruvoll, Annegrete, 2009. "Richer and cleaner--At others' expense?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 103-122, May.
    5. Webster, Mort & Paltsev, Sergey & Reilly, John, 2010. "The hedge value of international emissions trading under uncertainty," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1787-1796, April.
    6. Finn Aune & Rolf Golombek & Sverre Kittelsen, 2004. "Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 29(4), pages 379-400, December.
    7. Iain Fraser & Robert Waschik, 2010. "The Double Dividend Hypothesis in a CGE Model: Specific Factors and Variable Labour Supply," Working Papers 2010.02, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
    8. Otto, Sander A.C. & Gernaat, David E.H.J. & Isaac, Morna & Lucas, Paul L. & van Sluisveld, Mariësse A.E. & van den Berg, Maarten & van Vliet, Jasper & van Vuuren, Detlef P., 2015. "Impact of fragmented emission reduction regimes on the energy market and on CO2 emissions related to land use: A case study with China and the European Union as first movers," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 90(PA), pages 220-229.
    9. Hoel,M., 2001. "Domestic inefficiencies caused by transboundary pollution problems when there is no international coordination of environmental policies," Memorandum 17/2001, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    10. Barbara Buchner & Marzio Galeotti, 2003. "Climate Policy and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," Working Papers 2003.91, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    11. Reilly, J. & Paltsev, S. & Felzer, B. & Wang, X. & Kicklighter, D. & Melillo, J. & Prinn, R. & Sarofim, M. & Sokolov, A. & Wang, C., 2007. "Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5370-5383, November.
    12. Qu, Jiansheng & Zeng, Jingjing & Li, Yan & Wang, Qin & Maraseni, Tek & Zhang, Lihua & Zhang, Zhiqiang & Clarke-Sather, Abigail, 2013. "Household carbon dioxide emissions from peasants and herdsmen in northwestern arid-alpine regions, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 133-140.
    13. Babiker, Mustafa & Gurgel, Angelo & Paltsev, Sergey & Reilly, John, 2009. "Forward-looking versus recursive-dynamic modeling in climate policy analysis: A comparison," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1341-1354, November.
    14. Juan Pablo Montero & Luis Cifuentes & Felipe Soto, 2000. "Participación voluntaria en políticas internacionales de cambio climático: implicancias para Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 27(1 Year 20), pages 69-93, June.
    15. Babiker, Mustafa & Reilly, John & Ellerman, Denny, 2000. "Japanese Nuclear Power and the Kyoto Agreement," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 169-188, September.
    16. Ian Sue Wing, "undated". "Limiting CO2 Emissions in a Federal System: Understanding and Mitigating the Cost of U.S. Climate Policy At the State Level," Regional and Urban Modeling 283600093, EcoMod.
    17. Bruvoll, Annegrete & Faehn, Taran, 2006. "Transboundary effects of environmental policy: Markets and emission leakages," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(4), pages 499-510, October.
    18. Webster, Mort & Paltsev, Sergey & Reilly, John, 2008. "Autonomous efficiency improvement or income elasticity of energy demand: Does it matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 2785-2798, November.
    19. Liu, Xuemei, 2008. "The monetary compensation mechanism: An alternative to the clean development mechanism," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 289-297, June.
    20. Sergey Paltsev & John M. Reilly & Henry D. Jacoby & Angelo C. Gurgel & Gilbert E. Metcalf & Andrei P. Sokolov & Jennifer F. Holak, 2007. "Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals," NBER Working Papers 13176, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. U. Ciorba & A. Lanza & F. Pauli, 2001. "Kyoto Commitment And Emissions Trading: A European Union Perspective," Working Paper CRENoS 200102, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    22. Viguier, Laurent L. & Babiker, Mustafa H. & Reilly, John M., 2003. "The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 459-481, April.
    23. Sergey PALTSEV & John REILLY & Trent YANG, "undated". "Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment," EcoMod2004 330600109, EcoMod.

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    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General


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