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Commuting in the Baltic States: Patterns, determinants and gains

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  • Hazans, Mihails

Abstract

To what extent does commuting reduce urban – rural and regional wage disparities? This question is addressed by estimating two sets of earnings functions (based on 2000 LFS data for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania): with location variables (like capital city, rural etc.) measured at the workplace and at the place of residence. The main finding is that in Estonia and Latvia commuting has significantly narrowed the ceteris paribus wage gap between capital city and rural areas, as well as between capital and other cities. In Lithuania only residents of urban areas in the capital county manage to catch up significantly with the capital, while overall urban-rural gap remains almost unchanged. So different outcomes are explained by country-specific skills composition of rural – urban commuting flows and wage discrimination against rural residents in Lithuanian urban markets. Individual gains to rural – urban or inter-city commuting (both with and without correcting to selectivity) are uniformly big in Latvia but on average negligible in Lithuanian urban areas. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn in its series ZEI Working Papers with number B 02-2003.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zeiwps:b022003

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Related research

Keywords: commuting; earnings functions; treatment effects model; wage disparities; Baltic States; ethnic minority;

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References

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  1. Zax, Jeffrey S & Kain, John F, 1996. "Moving to the Suburbs: Do Relocating Companies Leave Their Black Employees Behind?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(3), pages 472-504, July.
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  3. Ommeren, Jos van & Berg, Gerard J. van den & Gorter, Cees, 1998. "Estimating the marginal willingness to pay for commuting," Serie Research Memoranda 0046, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  4. Lothlorien Redmond & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2001. "The positive utility of the commute: modeling ideal commute time and relative desired commute amount," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 179-205, May.
  5. Wasmer, Etienne & Zenou, Yves, 1999. "Does Space Affect Search? A Theory of Local Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 2157, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Carola Grün & Stephan Klasen, 2001. "Growth, income distribution and well-being in transition countries," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 9(2), pages 359-394, July.
  7. Wrede, Matthias, 2001. "Should Commuting Expenses Be Tax Deductible? A Welfare Analysis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 80-99, January.
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  11. Jan Rouwendal & Erik Meijer, 2001. "Preferences for Housing, Jobs, and Commuting: A Mixed Logit Analysis," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(3), pages 475-505.
  12. Zenou, Yves, 1999. "Urban Unemployment, Agglomeration and Transportation Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 2309, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  14. Kim S. So & Peter F. Orazem & Daniel M. Otto, 2001. "The Effects of Housing Prices, Wages, and Commuting Time on Joint Residential and Job Location Choices," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(4), pages 1036-1048.
  15. Daniel McFadden & Kenneth Train, 2000. "Mixed MNL models for discrete response," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(5), pages 447-470.
  16. R.W. McQuaid, 2001. "Unemployed Job Seeker Attitudes towards Potential Travel-to-Work Times," Growth and Change, Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky, vol. 32(3), pages 355-368.
  17. Rouwendal, Jan, 1999. "Spatial job search and commuting distances," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 491-517, July.
  18. Jan K. Brueckner & Hyun-A Kim, 2001. "Land Markets in the Harris-Todaro Model: A New Factor Equilibrating Rural-Urban Migration," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(3), pages 507-520.
  19. van Ommeren, Jos & Rietveld, Piet & Nijkamp, Peter, 1999. "Job Moving, Residential Moving, and Commuting: A Search Perspective," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 230-253, September.
  20. Rouwendal, Jan, 1998. "Search Theory, Spatial Labor Markets, and Commuting," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 1-22, January.
  21. Thomas, Jonathan M., 1998. "Ethnic Variation in Commuting Propensity and Unemployment Spells: Some U.K. Evidence," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 385-400, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. World Bank, 2012. "In Search of Opportunities : How a More Mobile Workforce Can Propel Ukraine’s Prosperity (Vol. 2 of 2) : Technical Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12287, The World Bank.
  2. Mihails Hazans, 2003. "Potential emigration of Latvian labour force after joining the EU and its impact on Latvian labour market," SSE Riga/BICEPS Research Papers 2003-2, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies (BICEPS) and Stockholm School of Economics in Riga (SSE Riga).
  3. Napolitano, Oreste & Bonasia, Mariangela, 2010. "Determinants of different internal migration trends: the Italian experience," MPRA Paper 21734, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Giovanni Russo & Federico Tedeschi & Aura Reggiani & Peter Nijkamp, 2014. "Commuter Effects on Local Labour Markets: A German Modelling Study," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 51(3), pages 493-508, February.
  5. Silaghi, Monica Ioana & Ghatak, Subrata, 2011. "Why do not They Move from Rural to Urban Areas? Inter-Regional Migration in Romania," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(1), pages 143-158, March.
  6. Mihails Hazans, 2003. "Determinants of Inter-Regional Migration in the Baltic Countries," ERSA conference papers ersa03p354, European Regional Science Association.
  7. Hazans, Mihails, 2005. "Unemployment and the earnings structure in Latvia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3504, The World Bank.
  8. Giovanni Russo & Peter Nijkamp & Aura Reggiani & Federico Tedeschi, 2011. "Commuters' effect on local labour markets: A german case study," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1376, European Regional Science Association.
  9. Engelbert Theurl & Georg Gottholmseder, 2006. "Nicht-PendlerInnen, Binnen- und GrenzpendlerInnen - Eine sozio-ökonomische Charakterisierung am Beispiel der Pendlerregion Bodenseeraum," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 32(2), pages 209-244.
  10. Anna Zasova & Aleksejs Melihovs, 2005. "Assessment of Labour Market Elasticity in Latvia," Working Papers 2005/03, Latvijas Banka.
  11. Peter Huber, 2011. "Educational Attainment and Education-job Mismatch of Cross-border Commuters in the EU," WIFO Working Papers 388, WIFO.

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