Adjusting to trade policy reform
AbstractVirtually all of the studies that quantify the adjustment costs of trade liberalization relative to the benefits point to the conclusion that adjustment costs are small in relation to the benefits of trade liberalization. The explanation for low adjustment costs is that: These costs are typically short-term and end when workers find a job, but the benefits grow as the economy does. Unemployment doesn't last long, especially where workers'pay was not substantial in the original job. Normal labor turnover often exceeds job displacement from trade liberalization. Moreover, studies that examine the impact of trade liberalization on employment in developing countries find there is little decline--and usually an increase--in manufacturing employment in developing countries a year after trade liberalization, for three reasons: 1) Developing countries tend to have comparative advantage in labor-intensive industries, and trade liberalization tends to favor labor. 2) Inter-industry shifts occur after trade liberalization, which minimizes the dislocation of factors of production. 3) In many industries, normal labor turnover exceeds dislocation from trade liberalization, so downsizing, when necessary can be accomplished without much forced unemployment. The authors recommend a uniform tariff to minimize special-interest lobbying for protection since it diffuses the benefits of protection.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2142.
Date of creation: 31 Jul 1999
Date of revision:
Decentralization; Economic Theory&Research; Environmental Economics&Policies; Labor Policies; Public Health Promotion; Environmental Economics&Policies; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Trade Policy; Economic Theory&Research;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- TF0 - - - - - -
- FUN - International Economics - - - - -
- OPE - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - - - -
- ADM - General Economics and Teaching - - - - -
- FEE - International Economics - - - - -
- INC - Health, Education, and Welfare - - - - -
- AND - General Economics and Teaching - - - - -
- EXP - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - - - -
- ACC - General Economics and Teaching - - - - -
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1990.
"Welfare Costs of U.S. Quotas in Textiles, Steel and Autos,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 72(3), pages 489-97, August.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1988. "Welfare costs of U.S. quotas on textiles, steel, and autos," Policy Research Working Paper Series 83, The World Bank.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1990. "Welfare Costs of US Quotas in Textiles, Steel and Autos," CEPR Discussion Papers 401, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Winters, L. Alan, 1990.
"Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
376, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Takacs, Wendy E & Winters, L Alan, 1991. "Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(3), pages 479-501, July.
- David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 1990.
"The Wage Curve,"
NBER Working Papers
3181, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Haltiwanger, John & Singh, Manisha, 1999. "Cross-Country Evidence on Public Sector Retrenchment," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(1), pages 23-66, January.
- Saint-Paul, Gilles, 1995.
"The High Unemployment Trap,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 527-50, May.
- Jacobson, Louis S & LaLonde, Robert J & Sullivan, Daniel G, 1993.
"Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 83(4), pages 685-709, September.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel Sullivan, 1992. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 92-11, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel G. Sullivan, 1992. "Earnings losses of displaced workers," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 92-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Michael Mussa, 1982. "Government Policy and the Adjustment Process," NBER Chapters, in: Import Competition and Response, pages 73-122 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fernandez, Raquel & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Resistance to Reform: Status Quo Bias in the Presence of Individual-Specific Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1146-55, December.
- Baldwin, Robert E. & Mutti, John H. & Richardson, J. David, 1980. "Welfare effects on the United States of a significant multilateral tariff reduction," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 405-423, August.
- Hoddinott, John, 1996. "Wages and Unemployment in an Urban African Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1610-26, November.
- Rama, Martin & DEC, 1994. "Flexibility in Sri Lanka's labor market," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1262, The World Bank.
- Roberts, Mark J & Tybout, James R, 1997. "The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of Entry with Sunk Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 545-64, September.
- Paul Decker & Walter Corson, 1995. "International trade and worker displacement: Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance Program," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 758-774, July.
- Steel, William F & Webster, Leila M, 1992. "How Small Enterprises in Ghana Have Responded to Adjustment," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(3), pages 423-38, September.
- Santiago Levy & Sweder van Wijnbergen, 1992. "Mexican Agriculture in the Free Trade Agreement: Transition Problems in Economic Reform," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 63, OECD Publishing.
- J. Peter Neary, 1982. "Intersectoral Capital Mobility, Wage Stickiness, and the Case for Adjustment Assistance," NBER Chapters, in: Import Competition and Response, pages 39-72 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter R. Fallon & Robert E. B. Lucas, 1989.
"Job Security Regulations and the Dynamic Demand for Industrial Labor in India and Zimbabwe,"
Boston University - Institute for Economic Development
2, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Fallon, Peter R. & Lucas, Robert E. B., 1993. "Job security regulations and the dynamic demand for industrial labor in India and Zimbabwe," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 241-275, April.
- Panagariya, Arvind & Rodrik, Dani, 1993.
"Political-Economy Arguments for a Uniform Tariff,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(3), pages 685-703, August.
- Morgan, Peter & Manning, Richard, 1985. "Optimal Search," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(4), pages 923-44, July.
- Mutti, John H, 1978. "Aspects of Unilateral Trade Policy and Factor Adjustment Costs," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 60(1), pages 102-10, February.
- Rama, Martin & MacIsaac, Donna, 1999. "Earnings and Welfare after Downsizing: Central Bank Employees in Ecuador," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(1), pages 89-116, January.
- Mead, Donald C. & Liedholm, Carl, 1998. "The dynamics of micro and small enterprises in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 61-74, January.
- Christopher J. O'Leary, . "Performance Indicators: A Management Assessment Tool for Active Labour Programmes in Hungary and Poland," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles cjo19953, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
- Orazem, Peter & Vodopivec, Milan & Wu, Ruth, 2004.
"Worker Displacement During The Transition: Experience From Slovenia,"
Staff General Research Papers
12032, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Peter F. Orazem & Milan Vodopivec & Ruth Wu, 2005. "Worker displacement during the transition: Experience from Slovenia," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 13(2), pages 311-340, 04.
- Orazem, Peter & Vodopivec, Milan & Wu, Ruth, 1995. "Worker displacement during the transition : experience from Slovenia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1449, The World Bank.
- Orazem, Peter F. & Vodopivec, Milan & Wu, Ruth, 2004. "Worker Displacement during the Transition: Experience from Slovenia," IZA Discussion Papers 1297, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Reint Gropp & Liam P. Ebrill & Janet Gale Stotsky, 1999. "Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization," IMF Occasional Papers 180, International Monetary Fund.
- Matusz, Steven J, 1996. "International Trade, the Division of Labor, and Unemployment," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(1), pages 71-84, February.
- Schaffner, Julie Anderson, 1993. "Rural labor legislation and permanent agricultural employment in Northeastern Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 705-719, May.
- Dixon, Peter B. & Parmenter, B. R. & Powell, Alan A., 1984. "Trade liberalization and labor market disruption," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 431-454, November.
- Steven J. Matusz, 1994. "International Trade Policy in a Model of Unemployment and Wage Differentials," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 27(4), pages 939-49, November.
- Trefler, Daniel, 1995. "The Case of the Missing Trade and Other Mysteries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1029-46, December.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.