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An Inquiry into the Use of Illegal Electoral Practices and Effects of Political Violence

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  • Roxana Gutiérrez-Romero

    ()
    (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona)

Abstract

This article investigates whether vote-buying and the instigation of violence in the disputed 2007 Kenyan elections were strategically motivated, and whether those affected by electoral violence changed their views towards ethno-politics and the use of violence. To answer these questions, a panel survey conducted before and after the elections is combined with external indicators of electoral violence. We find that political parties targeted vote-buying towards specific groups to weaken the support of their political rivals and to mobilize their own supporters. Furthermore, parties instigated violence strategically in areas where they were less likely to win. Although the victims of violence would prefer that parties are no longer allowed to organize in ethnic or religious lines, they are more likely to identify in ethnic terms, support the use of violence and avoid relying on the police to resolve disputes. The overall findings suggest an increased risk of electoral-violence reoccurring.

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File URL: http://www.ecap.uab.es/RePEc/doc/wpdea1210.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona in its series Working Papers with number wpdea1210.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uab:wprdea:wpdea1210

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Keywords: Political competition; electoral violence; vote-buying; election fraud; ethnic identity; Kenya;

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References

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  1. Laia Balcells, 2008. "Rivalry and Revenge: Making Sense of Violence against Civilians in Conventional Civil Wars," HiCN Working Papers 51, Households in Conflict Network.
  2. Pedro C. Vicente & Leonard Wantchekon, 2009. "Clientelism and vote buying: lessons from field experiments in African elections," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(2), pages 292-305, Summer.
  3. Christopher Ksoll & Rocco Macchiavello & Ameet Morjaria, 2009. "Guns and Roses: The Impact of the Kenyan Post-Election Violence on Flower Exporting Firms," CSAE Working Paper Series 2009-06, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  4. Ashish Chaturvedi, 2005. "Rigging elections with violence," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 125(1), pages 189-202, July.
  5. Paul Collier & Dominic Rohner, 2008. "Democracy, Development, and Conflict," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 6(2-3), pages 531-540, 04-05.
  6. Fabiana Machado & Carlos Scartascini & Mariano Tommasi, 2011. "Political Institutions and Street Protests in Latin America," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 55(3), pages 340-365, June.
  7. Takashi Yamano & Yuki Tanaka & Raphael Gitau, 2010. "Haki Yetu (It’s Our Right): Determinants of Post-Election Violence in Kenya," GRIPS Discussion Papers 10-20, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
  8. Dercon, Stefan & Gutiérrez-Romero, Roxana, 2012. "Triggers and Characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan Electoral Violence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 731-744.
  9. Thad Dunning, 2011. "Fighting and Voting: Violent Conflict and Electoral Politics," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 55(3), pages 327-339, June.
  10. Oecd, 2008. "Country Review: Chinese Taipei," OECD Journal: Competition Law and Policy, OECD Publishing, vol. 10(2), pages 127-165.
  11. Michael Bratton & Mwangi S. Kimenyi, 2008. "Voting in Kenya: Putting Ethnicity in Perspective," Working papers 2008-09, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  12. Paul Collier & Pedro C. Vicente, 2008. "Votes and Violence: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Nigeria," HiCN Working Papers 50, Households in Conflict Network.
  13. Paul Collier & Pedro Vicente, 2012. "Violence, bribery, and fraud: the political economy of elections in Sub-Saharan Africa," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 153(1), pages 117-147, October.
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Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Political Competition: Research on Kenya Post-Election Violence
    by UDADISI in UDADISI on 2012-12-11 18:20:00

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