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Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

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  • Karol Jan BOROWIECKI

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)

Abstract

This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis using historical data on composers and employ a unique instrumental variable – a measure of birth centrality, calculated as the average distance between a composer’s birthplace and the birthplace of his peers. I find a strong causal impact of peer group size on the number of important compositions written in a given year. Consistent with theory, the productivity gain eventually decreases and is characterized by an inverted U-shaped relationship. These results are robust to a large series of tests, including checks for quality of peers, city characteristics, various measures of composers’ productivity, and across different estimations in which also time-varying birth centrality measures are used as instrumental variables.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics in its series Trinity Economics Papers with number tep0213.

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Length: 60 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:tcd:tcduee:tep0213

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Postal: Trinity College, Dublin 2
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Fax: 6772503
Web page: http://www.tcd.ie/Economics/
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Related research

Keywords: agglomeration economies; density effects; peer effects; productivity; urban history; cities; composer;

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References

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  1. Borowiecki, Karol Jan, 2013. "Geographic clustering and productivity: An instrumental variable approach for classical composers," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 94-110.
  2. Karol Jan BOROWIECKI & John W. O'HAGAN, 2011. "Historical Patterns Based on Automatically Extracted Data: the Case of Classical Composers," Trinity Economics Papers tep1411, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  3. Karol Jan Borowiecki, 2010. "Are Composers Different? Historical Evidence on Conflict-induced Migration (1816-1997)," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp342, IIIS.
  4. Raouf, BOUCEKKINE & David, DE LA CROIX & Dominique, PEETERS, 2005. "Early Literacy Achievements, Population Density and the Transition to Modern Growth," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2005023, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  5. Fabian Waldinger, 2009. "Peer effects in science: evidence from the dismissal of scientists in Nazi Germany," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 28518, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  6. Mark Lorenzen & Kristina Vaarst Andersen, 2009. "Centrality and Creativity: Does Richard Florida's Creative Class Offer New Insights into Urban Hierarchy?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(4), pages 363-390, October.
  7. Michael Storper & Anthony J. Venables, 2003. "Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy," CEP Discussion Papers dp0598, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  8. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2004. "Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 49, pages 2119-2171 Elsevier.
  9. Pierre Azoulay & Joshua S. Graff Zivin & Jialan Wang, 2008. "Superstar Extinction," NBER Working Papers 14577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Karol Jan BOROWIECKI, 2011. "Conflict-induced Migration of Composers: An Individual-level Study," Trinity Economics Papers tep0511, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  11. Falck, Oliver & Fritsch, Michael & Heblich, Stephan, 2011. "The phantom of the opera: Cultural amenities, human capital, and regional economic growth," Munich Reprints in Economics 20513, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  12. Emanuela Marrocu & Raffaele Paci, 2012. "Education or Creativity: What Matters Most for Economic Performance?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 88(4), pages 369-401, October.
  13. Karlsson, Charlie, 2010. "Clusters, Networks and Creativity," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 235, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  14. Federico Cingano & Fabiano Schivardi, 2004. "Identifying the Sources of Local Productivity Growth," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(4), pages 720-742, 06.
  15. Karol Borowiecki & John O’Hagan, 2013. "Impact of war on individual life-cycle creativity: tentative evidence in relation to composers," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 347-358, August.
  16. Fabian Waldinger, 2010. "Quality Matters: The Expulsion of Professors and the Consequences for PhD Student Outcomes in Nazi Germany," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 118(4), pages 787-831, 08.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Markus Lampe & Paul Sharp, 2014. "Just Add Milk: A Productivity Analysis of the Revolutionary Changes in Nineteenth Century Danish Dairying," Working Papers 0055, European Historical Economics Society (EHES).
  2. Natacha Postel-Vinay, 2014. "Debt Dilution in 1920s America: Lighting the Fuse of a Mortgage Crisis," Working Papers 0053, European Historical Economics Society (EHES).
  3. Tobias A. Jopp, 2014. "How did the capital market evaluate Germany’s prospects for winning World War I? Evidence from the Amsterdam market for government bonds," Working Papers 0052, European Historical Economics Society (EHES).
  4. Leandro Prados de la Escosura, 2014. "Economic Freedom in the Long Run: Evidence from OECD Countries (1850-2007)," Working Papers 0054, European Historical Economics Society (EHES).
  5. Krenz, Astrid, 2014. "Agglomeration of knowledge: A regional economic analysis for the German economy," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 206, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.

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