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Nonlinearities and the order of integration of oil prices

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  • Juan Carlos Cuestas
  • Paulo Jose Regis

Abstract

Unit root tests are the starting point of most empirical time series research. This paper analyses the order of integration of oil prices taking into account the possibilities of nonlinearities in the deterministic components. Using an aggregate index for the price of oil, and applying Bierens (1997) unit root tests, we find that the hypothesis of a unit root process is rejected in favour of nonlinear trend stationarity of the price of crude oil. On the contrary, preliminary analysis using Ng and Perron (2001) and Kapetanios, Shin and Snell's (2003) tests, fail to reject the hypothesis of a unit root.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division in its series Working Papers with number 2008/15.

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Date of creation: Sep 2008
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Handle: RePEc:nbs:wpaper:2008/15

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Keywords: Unit roots; Nonlinearities; Oil price;

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  1. Perron, Pierre, 1990. "Testing for a Unit Root in a Time Series with a Changing Mean," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(2), pages 153-62, April.
  2. Lanza, Alessandro & Manera, Matteo & Giovannini, Massimo, 2005. "Modeling and forecasting cointegrated relationships among heavy oil and product prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 831-848, November.
  3. Hans-Martin Krolzig & Michael P. Clements, 2002. "Can oil shocks explain asymmetries in the US Business Cycle?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 185-204.
  4. Jan Bentzen, 2007. "Does OPEC influence crude oil prices? Testing for co-movements and causality between regional crude oil prices," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(11), pages 1375-1385.
  5. Perron, P., 1990. "Further Evidence On Breaking Trend Functions In Macroeconomics Variables," Papers 350, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
  6. Backus, David K. & Crucini, Mario J., 2000. "Oil prices and the terms of trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 185-213, February.
  7. Eric Zivot & Donald W.K. Andrews, 1990. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 944, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  8. Ahmad R. Jalali-Naini & Mehdi Asali, 2004. "Cyclical behaviour and shock-persistence: crude oil prices," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 28(2), pages 107-131, 06.
  9. Robin L. Lumsdaine & David H. Papell, 1997. "Multiple Trend Breaks And The Unit-Root Hypothesis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 212-218, May.
  10. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
  11. Gil-Alana, Luis A., 2001. "A fractionally integrated model with a mean shift for the US and the UK real oil prices," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 643-658, December.
  12. James D. Hamilton, 2000. "What is an Oil Shock?," NBER Working Papers 7755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Raymond, Jennie E & Rich, Robert W, 1997. "Erratum [Oil and the Macroeconomy: A Markov State-Switching Approach]," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(4), pages 555, November.
  14. Hamilton, James D, 1983. "Oil and the Macroeconomy since World War II," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(2), pages 228-48, April.
  15. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-84, March.
  16. Kapetanios, George & Shin, Yongcheol & Snell, Andy, 2003. "Testing for a unit root in the nonlinear STAR framework," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 112(2), pages 359-379, February.
  17. Perron, P, 1988. "The Great Crash, The Oil Price Shock And The Unit Root Hypothesis," Papers 338, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
  18. Raymond, Jennie E & Rich, Robert W, 1997. "Oil and the Macroeconomy: A Markov State-Switching Approach," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(2), pages 193-213, May.
  19. West, Kenneth D, 1988. "Asymptotic Normality, When Regressors Have a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1397-1417, November.
  20. Perron, Pierre & Phillips, Peter C. B., 1987. "Does GNP have a unit root? : A re-evaluation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 139-145.
  21. Salah Abosedra, 2005. "Futures versus univariate forecast of crude oil prices," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 29(4), pages 231-241, December.
  22. Luis Gil-Alana, 2003. "Unemployment and real oil prices in Australia: a fractionally cointegrated approach," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(4), pages 201-204.
  23. Bierens, Herman J., 1997. "Testing the unit root with drift hypothesis against nonlinear trend stationarity, with an application to the US price level and interest rate," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 29-64, November.
  24. Postali, Fernando A.S. & Picchetti, Paulo, 2006. "Geometric Brownian Motion and structural breaks in oil prices: A quantitative analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 506-522, July.
  25. Mork, Knut Anton, 1989. "Oil and Macroeconomy When Prices Go Up and Down: An Extension of Hamilton's Results," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 740-44, June.
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