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Is real GDP per capita a stationary process? Smooth transitions, nonlinear trends and unit root testing

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  • Juan Carlos Cuestas
  • Dean Garratt

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to provide additional evidence about the order of integration of constant price GDP per capita in a selection of countries. It does so by taking into account the possibility of non-linear deterministic trends and of asymmetric adjustment towards equilibrium. We find evidence of a global stationary ESTAR process around a nonlinear deterministic trend in almost half of the selected countries. These results show that nonlinearities affect real GDP series. By neglecting them, one can draw misleading conclusions from unit root tests. Specifically, the paper questions the so-called stylised fact of a near unit root which has so influenced macroeconomic thought over the past two decades.

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File URL: http://www.ntu.ac.uk/research/document_uploads/85422.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division in its series Working Papers with number 2008/12.

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Date of creation: Jul 2008
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Handle: RePEc:nbs:wpaper:2008/12

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Web page: http://www.ntu.ac.uk/nbs

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Keywords: Real GDP per capita; Unit root tests; Persistence; Nonlinearities; Smooth transitions;

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  1. Perron, P, 1988. "The Great Crash, The Oil Price Shock And The Unit Root Hypothesis," Papers 338, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
  2. Kapetanios, George & Shin, Yongcheol & Snell, Andy, 2003. "Testing for a unit root in the nonlinear STAR framework," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 112(2), pages 359-379, February.
  3. Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," NBER Technical Working Papers 0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Ludlow, Jorge & Enders, Walter, 2000. "Estimating non-linear ARMA models using Fourier coefficients," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 333-347.
  5. Steven N. Durlauf, 1989. "Output Persistence, Economic Structure, and the Choice of Stabilization Policy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 20(2), pages 69-136.
  6. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1985. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 740R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Feb 1986.
  7. Abadir, Karim M. & Distaso, Walter, 2007. "Testing joint hypotheses when one of the alternatives is one-sided," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 140(2), pages 695-718, October.
  8. West, Kenneth D, 1988. "Asymptotic Normality, When Regressors Have a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1397-1417, November.
  9. Robinson Kruse, 2011. "A new unit root test against ESTAR based on a class of modified statistics," Statistical Papers, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 71-85, February.
  10. Nelson, C-R & Murray, C-J, 1997. "The Uncertain Trend in U.S. GDP," Working Papers 97-05, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
  11. Ben-David, Dan & Papell, David H., 1995. "The great wars, the great crash, and steady state growth: Some new evidence about an old stylized fact," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 453-475, December.
  12. David I. Harvey & Stephen J. Leybourne, 2007. "Testing for time series linearity," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 10(1), pages 149-165, 03.
  13. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
  14. Mehmet Caner & Bruce E. Hansen, 2001. "Threshold Autoregression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1555-1596, November.
  15. Bierens, Herman J., 1997. "Testing the unit root with drift hypothesis against nonlinear trend stationarity, with an application to the US price level and interest rate," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 29-64, November.
  16. Perron, P., 1989. "Testing For A Unit Root In A Time Series With A Changing Mean," Papers 347, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
  17. Bhargava, Alok, 1986. "On the Theory of Testing for Unit Roots in Observed Time Series," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(3), pages 369-84, July.
  18. Leybourne, Stephen J. & C. Mills, Terence & Newbold, Paul, 1998. "Spurious rejections by Dickey-Fuller tests in the presence of a break under the null," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 191-203, August.
  19. Beechey, Meredith & Österholm, Pär, 2008. "Revisiting the uncertain unit root in GDP and CPI: Testing for non-linear trend reversion," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 221-223, August.
  20. Vougas, Dimitrios V., 2007. "Is the trend in post-WW II US real GDP uncertain or non-linear?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 348-355, March.
  21. Michael, Panos & Nobay, A Robert & Peel, David A, 1997. "Transactions Costs and Nonlinear Adjustment in Real Exchange Rates: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(4), pages 862-79, August.
  22. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:3:y:2005:i:24:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
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Cited by:
  1. Kitov, Ivan, 2012. "Why price inflation in developed countries is systematically underestimated," MPRA Paper 39059, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Emmanuel Anoruo & Vasudeva N.R. Murthy, 2014. "Testing Nonlinear Inflation Convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 4(1), pages 1-7.
  3. Kaufmann, Hendrik & Kruse, Robinson & Sibbertsen, Philipp, 2012. "On tests for linearity against STAR models with deterministic trends," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 268-271.
  4. Pei-Long Shen & Chih-Wei Su & Hsu-Ling Chang, 2013. "Are real GDP levels nonstationary across Central and Eastern European countries?," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 13(1), pages 99-108, July.

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