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Trade Liberalization in General Equilibrium: Intertemporal and Inter-Industry Effects

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  • Lawrence H. Goulder
  • Barry Eichengreen

Abstract

This paper uses a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to simulate the effects of unilateral reductions by the U.S. in tariffs and "voluntary" export restraints (VER's). We consider 50 percent cuts in tariffs and in ad valorem VER equivalents, separately and in combination. The model features intertemporal optimization by households and firms, explicit adjustment dynamics, an integrated treatment of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments, and industry disaggregation. Central findings include: (1) VER's are considerably more significant than tariffs in terms of the magnitude of the macroeconomic effects induced by their reduction; (2) while VER reductions enhance domestic welfare, unilateral tariff cuts reduce domestic welfare (as a consequence of U.S. monopsony power and associated adverse terms of trade effects); (3) international capital movements critically regulate the responses of the U.S. and foreign economies to these trade initiatives and produce significant differences between short and long-run effects; and (4) effects differ substantially across industries. Together, these findings indicate that simulation analyses that disregard international capital movements, adjustment dynamics, and industry differences may generate seriously misleading results.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 2965.

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Date of creation: May 1989
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2965

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  1. Rachel McCulloch, 1987. "International Competition in Services," NBER Working Papers 2235, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. André Sapir & Robert Baldwin & Carl Hamilton, 1988. "Issues in US-EC trade relations," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8088, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
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  12. Lawrence H. Goulder & Barry Eichengreen, 1989. "Savings Promotion, Investment Promotion, and International Competitiveness," NBER Working Papers 2635, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Grandmont, Jean-Michel, 1977. "Temporary General Equilibrium Theory," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(3), pages 535-72, April.
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  19. Adler, Michael & Dumas, Bernard, 1983. " International Portfolio Choice and Corporation Finance: A Synthesis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 925-84, June.
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  21. Randall Wigle, 1988. "General Equilibrium Evaluation of Canada-U.S. Trade Liberalization in a Global Context," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 21(3), pages 539-64, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Carlos E. J. M. Zarazaga, 2000. "Measuring the benefits of unilateral trade liberalization; part 2: dynamic models," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q1, pages 29-39.
  2. Walmsley, Terrie, 1998. "Long Run Simulations With GTAP: Illustrative Results from APEC Trade Liberalisation," GTAP Technical Papers 312, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
  3. Mohamed Ali Marouani, 2009. "Is the End of the MFA a Threat?," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 99-110, 02.
  4. Mohamed Ali Marouani, 2007. "Is the End of the MFA a threat for the Tunisian Economy?," Working Papers DT/2007/05, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  5. Prof Warwick McKibbin, 1996. "Quantifying APEC Trade Liberalization: A Dynamic Analysis," Trade and Development 96/1, Australian National University, Department of Economics.
  6. AKITOBY, Bernardin, 1997. "Rigidité normale, dévaluation et équilibre général intertemporel," Cahiers de recherche 9708, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  7. Klepper, Gernot & Lorz, Jens Oliver & Stähler, Frank & Thiele, Rainer & Wiebelt, Manfred, 1993. "Empirische allgemeine Gleichgewichts-Modelle: Struktur und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten," Kiel Working Papers 595, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  8. Marouani, Mohamed A., 2005. "The Impact of the Multifiber Agreement Phaseout on Unemployment in Tunisia: A Prospective Dynamic Analysis," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 39, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  9. Keuschnigg, Christian & Kohler, Wilhelm, 1996. "Commercial policy and dynamic adjustment under monopolistic competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-4), pages 373-409, May.
  10. Willenbockel, Dirk, 1999. "Dynamic applied general equilibrium trade policy analysis in the presence of foreign asset cross-ownership," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 371-388, August.
  11. Dissou, Yazid & Mac Leod, Carolyn & Souissi, Mokhtar, 2002. "Compliance costs to the Kyoto Protocol and market structure in Canada: a dynamic general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(7-8), pages 751-779, November.
  12. Michael A. Kouparitsas, 1998. "Dynamic trade liberalization analysis: steady state, transitional and inter-industry effects," Working Paper Series WP-98-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.

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