Bribery in Health Care in Peru and Uganda
AbstractIn this paper, I examine the role of household income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Peru and Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household consumption increases the bribery probability by 0.2-0.4 percentage points in Peru, compared to a bribery rate of 0.8%; doubling household expenditure in Uganda increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rate of 17%. The income elasticity of the bribe amount cannot be precisely estimated in Peru, but is about 0.37 in Uganda. Bribes in the Ugandan public sector appear to be fees-for-service extorted from the richer patients amongst those exempted by government policy from paying the official fees. Bribes in the private sector appear to be flat-rate fees paid by patients who do not pay official fees. I do not find evidence that the public health care sector in either Peru or Uganda is able to price-discriminate less effectively than public institutions with less competition from the private sector.
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Date of creation: Apr 2007
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Other versions of this item:
- Hunt, Jennifer, 2007. "Bribery in Health Care in Peru and Uganda," IZA Discussion Papers 2757, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jennifer Hunt, 2007. "Bribery In Health Care In Peru And Uganda," Departmental Working Papers 2007-02, McGill University, Department of Economics.
- Hunt, Jennifer, 2007. "Bribery in Health Care in Peru and Uganda," CEPR Discussion Papers 6274, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- H4 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods
- K4 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
- O1 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2007-04-21 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2007-04-21 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2007-04-21 (Development)
- NEP-HEA-2007-04-21 (Health Economics)
- NEP-LAM-2007-04-21 (Central & South America)
- NEP-LAW-2007-04-21 (Law & Economics)
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