Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Why Do IPO Auctions Fail?

Contents:

Author Info

  • Ravi Jagannathan
  • Ann E. Sherman

Abstract

We document a somewhat surprising regularity: of the many countries that have used IPO auctions, virtually all have abandoned them. The common explanations given for the lack of popularity of the auction method in the US, viz., issuer reluctance to try a new experimental method, and underwriter pressure towards methods that lead to higher fees, do not fit the evidence. We examine why auctions have failed and verify, to the extent possible, that they are consistent with what academic theory predicts. Both uniform price and discriminatory auctions are plagued by unexpectedly large fluctuations in the number of participants. The free rider problem and the winner's curse hamper price discovery and discourage investors from participating in auctions. Calculating the optimal bids in large multi-unit common value auctions with endogenous entry imposes a huge computational burden. With IPOs taking place sporadically, and each firm being different, auctions are likely to end up being unstable.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w12151.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12151.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Apr 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12151

Note: AP CF IO
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Phone: 617-868-3900
Email:
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Tim Jenkinson & Howard Jones, 2004. "Bids and Allocations in European IPO Bookbuilding," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2309-2338, October.
  2. Kagel, John H & Levin, Dan, 1991. "The Winner's Curse and Public Information in Common Value Auctions: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 362-69, March.
  3. Jenkinson, Tim & Mayer, Colin, 1988. "The privatisation process in France and the U.K," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 482-490, March.
  4. Hausch, Donald B & Li, Lode, 1993. "A Common Value Auction Model with Endogenous Entry and Information Acquisition," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 315-34, April.
  5. Welch, Ivo, 1992. " Sequential Sales, Learning, and Cascades," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 695-732, June.
  6. Kenji Kutsuna, 2004. "Why Does Book Building Drive Out Auction Methods of IPO Issuance? Evidence from Japan," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(4), pages 1129-1166.
  7. Bruno Biais & Peter Bossaerts & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2002. "An Optimal IPO Mechanism," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(1), pages 117-146.
  8. Aussenegg, Wolfgang & Pichler, Pegaret & Stomper, Alex, 2006. "IPO Pricing with Bookbuilding and a When-Issued Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(04), pages 829-862, December.
  9. William Wilhelm & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2001. "IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe08, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  10. Jay R. Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1795-1828, 08.
  11. Alexander Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William Wilhelm, 2001. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe06, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  12. Harstad, Ronald M, 1990. "Alternative Common-Value Auction Procedures: Revenue Comparisons with Free Entry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 421-29, April.
  13. Levin, Dan & Smith, James L, 1994. "Equilibrium in Auctions with Entry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 585-99, June.
  14. Marc Goergen, 1998. "The Transfer of Control in British and German IPOs," Finance 9804005, EconWPA.
  15. Francesca Cornelli, 2001. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2337-2369, December.
  16. Habib, Michel A & Ljungqvist, Alexander P, 2001. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 433-58.
  17. Kerins, Frank & Kutsuna, Kenji & Smith, Richard, 2007. "Why are IPOs underpriced? Evidence from Japan's hybrid auction-method offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 637-666, September.
  18. Paul Klemperer & Jeremy Bulow, 1998. "Prices and the Winners Curse," Economics Series Working Papers 1998-W02, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  19. Steven A. Matthews, 1985. "Comparing Auctions for Risk Averse Buyers: A Buyer's Pointof View," Discussion Papers 664R, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  20. Avanidhar Subrahmanyam & Sheridan Titman, 1999. "The Going-Public Decision and the Development of Financial Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1045-1082, 06.
  21. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
  22. Colin Campbell & Dan Levin, 2006. "When and why not to auction," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 583-596, 04.
  23. Paul Schultz, 2003. "Pseudo Market Timing and the Long-Run Underperformance of IPOs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 483-518, 04.
  24. Amihud, Yakov & Hauser, Shmuel & Kirsh, Amir, 2003. "Allocations, adverse selection, and cascades in IPOs: Evidence from the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 137-158, April.
  25. Michel A. Habib & Alexandre Ziegler, 2003. "Why Government Bonds Are Sold by Auction and Corporate Bonds by Posted-Price Selling," FAME Research Paper Series rp78, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
  26. Kandel, Shmuel & Sarig, Oded & Wohl, Avi, 1999. "The Demand for Stocks: An Analysis of IPO Auctions," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 227-47.
  27. Kyle, Albert S, 1989. "Informed Speculation with Imperfect Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(3), pages 317-55, July.
  28. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R. & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1994. "Initial public offerings: International insights," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 2(2-3), pages 165-199, May.
  29. Ann E. Sherman & Sheridan Titman, 2000. "Building the IPO Order Book: Underpricing and Participation Limits With Costly Information," NBER Working Papers 7786, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Sherman, Ann E., 2005. "Global trends in IPO methods: Book building versus auctions with endogenous entry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 615-649, December.
  31. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "International differences in oversubscription and underpricing of IPOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 359-381, July.
  32. Biais, Bruno & Faugeron-Crouzet, Anne-Marie, 2000. "IPO Auctions: English, Dutch, ... French and Internet," IDEI Working Papers 104, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  33. Christine Parlour & Uday Rajan, 2005. "Rationing in IPOs," Review of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 33-63, 03.
  34. Hendricks, Kenneth & Porter, Robert H & Wilson, Charles A, 1994. "Auctions for Oil and Gas Leases with an Informed Bidder and a Random Reservation Price," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(6), pages 1415-44, November.
  35. Lawrence M. Ausubel, 2002. "Implications of Auction Theory for New Issues Markets," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 02-19, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  36. Francesca Cornelli & David Goldreich & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2006. "Investor Sentiment and Pre-IPO Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(3), pages 1187-1216, 06.
  37. Veronika Grimm & Jürgen Bierbaum, 2004. "Selling Shares To Retail Investors: Auction Vs. Fixed Price," Working Papers. Serie AD 2004-08, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  38. Jenkinson, Tim & Morrison, Alan D. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2006. "Why are European IPOs so rarely priced outside the indicative price range?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 185-209, April.
  39. Tim Loughran & Jay R. Ritter, 2002. "Why Don't Issuers Get Upset About Leaving Money on the Table in IPOs?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 413-444, March.
  40. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "The winner's curse and international methods of allocating initial public offerings," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 15-30, May.
  41. Chris Yung, 2005. "IPOs with Buy- and Sell-Side Information Production: The Dark Side of Open Sales," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(1), pages 327-347.
  42. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
  43. Ravi Jagannathan & Ann E. Sherman, 2005. "Reforming the Bookbuilding Process for IPOs," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 17(1), pages 67-72.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Habib, Michel A. & Ziegler, Alexandre, 2007. "Why government bonds are sold by auction and corporate bonds by posted-price selling," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 343-367, July.
  2. Degeorge, François & Derrien, François & Womack, Kent L., 2010. "Auctioned IPOs: The US evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 177-194, November.
  3. Pettway, Richard H. & Thosar, Satish & Walker, Scott, 2008. "Auctions versus book-built IPOs in Japan: A comparison of aftermarket volatility," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 224-235, June.
  4. Chiang, Yao-Min & Hirshleifer, David & Qian, Yiming & Sherman, Ann, 2009. "Learning to Fail? Evidence from Frequent IPO Investors," MPRA Paper 16854, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Aug 2009.
  5. Adriani, Fabrizio & Deidda, Luca & Sonderegger, Silvia, 2009. "The Role of Financial Intermediaries in Securities Issues: A Theoretical Analysis," MPRA Paper 16112, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Joseph K. W. Fung & Sanry Y. S. Che, 2009. "Initial Day Return and Underpricing Cost in Advance Payment Initial Public Offerings," Working Papers 352009, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  7. Ulrike Malmendier & Young Han Lee, 2011. "The Bidder's Curse," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(2), pages 749-87, April.
  8. Christian Hopp & Axel Dreher, 2007. "Do Differences in Institutional and Legal Environments Explain Cross-Country Variations in IPO Underpricing?," KOF Working papers 07-172, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  9. Ping Zhang, 2009. "Characterization of Pure Strategy Equilibria in Uniform Price IPO Auctions," Discussion Papers 2009-05, The Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics, School of Economics, University of Nottingham.
  10. Trauten, Andreas & Langer, Thomas, 2007. "Information production and bidding in IPOs: An experimental analysis of auctions and fixed-price offerings," Working Papers 50, Competence Center Internet Economy and Hybrid Systems, European Research Center for Information Systems (ERCIS), University of Münster.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12151. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.