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Why are European IPOs so rarely priced outside the indicative price range?

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  • Jenkinson, Tim
  • Morrison, Alan D.
  • Wilhelm, William Jr.

Abstract

In contrast to practice in the U.S., European IPOs are very rarely priced outside the indicative price range, and frequently are priced at its upper bound. We develop a model that provides a rationale for this seemingly inefficient pricing behaviour. The model allows for the practice, observed in Europe but not in the U.S., whereby underwriters obtain information from investors prior to establishing the indicative price range. With this alternative staging of the information game, first studied by Benveniste and Spindt (1989), a commitment to not exceeding the upper bound is necessary to extract private information from investors. The model has important implications for empirical research based on European primary market data.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Economics.

Volume (Year): 80 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 (April)
Pages: 185-209

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:80:y:2006:i:1:p:185-209

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576

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References

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  1. Chemmanur, Thomas J, 1993. " The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: A Dynamic Model with Information Production," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 285-304, March.
  2. Biais, Bruno & Bossaerts, Peter & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 2002. "An Optimal IPO Mechanism," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 117-46, January.
  3. Sherman, Ann E. & Titman, Sheridan, 2002. "Building the IPO order book: underpricing and participation limits with costly information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 3-29, July.
  4. Tinic, Seha M, 1988. " Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(4), pages 789-822, September.
  5. Sherman, Ann E, 2000. "IPOs and Long-Term Relationships: An Advantage of Book Building," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 697-714.
  6. Daniel J. Bradley & Bradford D. Jordan & Jay R. Ritter, 2003. "The Quiet Period Goes out with a Bang," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 1-36, 02.
  7. Alexander Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William Wilhelm, 2001. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe06, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  8. Francesca Cornelli & David Goldreich, 2003. "Bookbuilding: How Informative Is the Order Book?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1415-1443, 08.
  9. Francesca Cornelli, 2001. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2337-2369, December.
  10. Tim Jenkinson & Howard Jones, 2004. "Bids and Allocations in European IPO Bookbuilding," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2309-2338, October.
  11. Loffler, Gunter & Panther, Patrick F. & Theissen, Erik, 2005. "Who knows what when? The information content of pre-IPO market prices," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 466-484, October.
  12. Jay R. Ritter, 2003. "Differences between European and American IPO Markets," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 9(4), pages 421-434.
  13. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
  14. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "International differences in oversubscription and underpricing of IPOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 359-381, July.
  15. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
  16. Philippe Aghion & Patrick Bolton & Jean Tirole, 2004. "Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives," Review of Finance, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 327-353.
  17. Sherman, Ann Guenther, 1992. " The Pricing of Best Efforts New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 781-90, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Boreiko, Dmitri & Lombardo, Stefano, 2011. "Italian IPOs: Allocations and claw back clauses," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 127-143, February.
  2. How, Janice & Lam, Jennifer & Yeo, Julian, 2007. "The use of the comparable firm approach in valuing Australian IPOs," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 99-115.
  3. Bertoni, Fabio & Giudici, Giancarlo, 2014. "The strategic reallocation of IPO shares," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 211-222.
  4. Alex Stomper & Wolfgang Aussenegg & Pegaret Pichler, 2004. "IPO Pricing with Bookbuilding and a When-Issued Market," Working Papers 2004.8, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  5. Sherman, Ann E., 2005. "Global trends in IPO methods: Book building versus auctions with endogenous entry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 615-649, December.
  6. Elston, Julie Ann & Yang, J. Jimmy, 2010. "Venture capital, ownership structure, accounting standards and IPO underpricing: Evidence from Germany," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(6), pages 517-536, November.
  7. Loffler, Gunter & Panther, Patrick F. & Theissen, Erik, 2005. "Who knows what when? The information content of pre-IPO market prices," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 466-484, October.
  8. Kenji Kutsuna & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 2009. "Public Information, IPO Price Formation, and Long-Run Returns: Japanese Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 505-546, 02.
  9. Leite, Tore, 2006. "Bookbuilding with heterogeneous investors," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 235-253, April.
  10. Cai, Kelly Nianyun & Lee, Hei Wai & Valero, Magali, 2010. "Changing underwriting practices on underpricing of U.S. global initial public offerings," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(12), pages 1317-1323, December.
  11. Ravi Jagannathan & Ann E. Sherman, 2006. "Why Do IPO Auctions Fail?," NBER Working Papers 12151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Chang, Hsiu-Hua & Chen, Anlin & Kao, Lanfeng & Wu, Chin-Shun, 2014. "IPO price discovery efficiency under alternative regulatory constraints: Taiwan, Hong Kong and the U.S," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 83-96.

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