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IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?

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  • William Wilhelm

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  • Alexander Ljungqvist

Abstract

Using a sample of both U.S. and international IPOs we find evidence of the following: IPO allocation policies favor institutional investors both in the U.S. and worldwide. Constraints on the discretion bankers exercise in the allocation of IPO shares reduce institutional allocations. Constraints on allocation discretion result in offer prices that deviate less from the indicative price range established prior to bankers' efforts to gauge demand among institutional investors. We interpret this as indicative of diminished information production. Initial returns, which reflect a significant indirect cost of going public, are directly related to this measure of information production and inversely related to the fraction of shares allocated to institutional investors.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Oxford Financial Research Centre in its series OFRC Working Papers Series with number 2001fe08.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:sbs:wpsefe:2001fe08

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  1. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Busaba, Walid Y. & Wilhelm Jr., William J., 1996. "Price stabilization as a bonding mechanism in new equity issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 223-255, October.
  2. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
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  5. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
  6. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Busaba, Walid Y. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "Information Externalities and the Role of Underwriters in Primary Equity Markets," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 61-86, January.
  7. Michel Habib & Alexander Ljungqvist, 1999. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," OFRC Working Papers Series 1999fe03, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  8. Habib, Michel A. & Ljungqvist, Alexander P., 1998. "Underpricing and IPO proceeds: a note," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 381-383, December.
  9. Booth, James R. & Chua, Lena, 1996. "Ownership dispersion, costly information, and IPO underpricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 291-310, June.
  10. Ann E. Sherman & Sheridan Titman, 2000. "Building the IPO Order Book: Underpricing and Participation Limits With Costly Information," NBER Working Papers 7786, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Cornelli, Francesca & Goldreich, David, 1999. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," CEPR Discussion Papers 2160, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Jones, Steven L. & Megginson, William L. & Nash, Robert C. & Netter, Jeffry M., 1999. "Share issue privatizations as financial means to political and economic ends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 217-253, August.
  13. Francesca Cornelli, 2001. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2337-2369, December.
  14. Jenkinson, Tim & Ljungqvist, Alexander, 2001. "Going Public: The Theory and Evidence on How Companies Raise Equity Finance," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780198295990, September.
  15. Baron, David P, 1982. " A Model of the Demand for Investment Banking Advising and Distribution Services for New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(4), pages 955-76, September.
  16. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Wilhelm, William J., 1990. "A comparative analysis of IPO proceeds under alternative regulatory environments," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 173-207.
  17. Biais, Bruno & Bossaerts, Peter & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 1996. "An optimal IPO mechanism," IDEI Working Papers 59, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  18. Sherman, Ann E, 2000. "IPOs and Long-Term Relationships: An Advantage of Book Building," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 697-714.
  19. Ljungqvist, Alexander P., 1997. "Pricing initial public offerings: Further evidence from Germany," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(7), pages 1309-1320, July.
  20. Lawrence M. Benveniste & Alexander Ljungqvist & William J. Wilhelm & Xiaoyun Yu, 2003. "Evidence of Information Spillovers in the Production of Investment Banking Services," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 577-608, 04.
  21. Tim Jenkinson & William Wilhelm, 2001. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-FE-06, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
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  23. repec:wop:humbsf:2000-72 is not listed on IDEAS
  24. Pagano, Marco, 1993. "The flotation of companies on the stock market : A coordination failure model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1101-1125, June.
  25. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss & Wilhelm Jr., William J., 1995. "Evidence on the strategic allocation of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 239-257, February.
  26. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
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