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Lessons From the Debt-Deflation Theory of Sudden Stops

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  • Enrique G. Mendoza

Abstract

This paper reports results for a class of dynamic, stochastic general equilibrium models with credit constraints that can account for some of the empirical regularities of the Sudden Stop phenomenon of recent emerging markets crises. In these models, credit constraints set in motion Irving Fisher's debt-deflation mechanism and they bind as an endogenous equilibrium outcome when agents are highly indebted. The quantitative predictions of these models yield three key lessons: (1) Sudden Stops can occur as an endogenous response to typical realizations of adverse shocks to fundamentals, in environments in which agents plan their actions taking credit constraints and expectations of Sudden Stops into account. (2) Credit constraints cause output declines during Sudden Stops when collateral constraints limit debt to a fraction of the market value of capital, when there are limits on access to working capital, or when debt-deflation lowers the value of the marginal product of factors of production. (3) The debt-deflation mechanism has significant quantitative effects in terms of the amplification, asymmetry and persistence of the responses of macroeconomic aggregates to standard shocks, and in the occurrence of Sudden Stops as infrequent events nested within regular business cycles. Precautionary saving rules out the largest Sudden Stops from the stochastic stationary state, but Sudden Stops remain a positive-probability event in the long run.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 11966.

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Date of creation: Jan 2006
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:11966

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  1. Cook, David & Devereux, Michael B, 2004. "External Currency Pricing and the East Asian Crisis," CEPR Discussion Papers 4642, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Narayana R. Kocherlakota, 2000. "Creating business cycles through credit constraints," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Sum, pages 2-10.
  3. Philippe Martin & Hélène Rey, 2005. "Globalization and Emerging Markets: With or Without Crash?," NBER Working Papers 11550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. S. Rao Aiyagari & Mark Gertler, 1999. ""Overreaction" of Asset Prices in General Equilibrium," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(1), pages 3-35, January.
  5. V.V. Chari & Patrick Kehoe & Ellen R. McGrattan, 2005. "Sudden Stops and Output Drops," NBER Working Papers 11133, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Finn, Mary G., 1995. "Variance properties of Solow's productivity residual and their cyclical implications," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(5-7), pages 1249-1281.
  7. Pablo A. Neumeyer & Fabrizio Perri, 2004. "Business cycles in emerging economies: the role of interest rates," Staff Report 335, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  8. Durdu, Ceyhun Bora & Mendoza, Enrique G., 2006. "Are asset price guarantees useful for preventing Sudden Stops?: A quantitative investigation of the globalization hazard-moral hazard tradeoff," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 84-119, June.
  9. Cristina Arellano & Enrique G. Mendoza, 2002. "Credit Frictions and 'Sudden Stops' in Small Open Economies: An Equilibrium Business Cycle Framework for Emerging Markets Crises," NBER Working Papers 8880, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Enrique G. Mendoza, 2001. "Credit, Prices, and Crashes: Business Cycles with a Sudden Stop," NBER Working Papers 8338, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Ricardo Caballero & Stavros Panageas, 2005. "A Quantitative Model of Sudden Stops and External Liquidity Management," NBER Working Papers 11293, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Emine Boz, 2005. "Do Miracles Lead to Crises?: An Informational Frictions Explanation to Emerging Market Financial Crises," 2005 Meeting Papers 496, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  13. Enrique G. Mendoza, 2005. "Sudden Stops in an Equilibrium Business Cycle Model with Credit Constraints: A Fisherian Deflation of Tobin's Q," 2005 Meeting Papers 307, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  14. Gopinath, Gita, 2004. "Lending booms, sharp reversals and real exchange rate dynamics," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 1-23, January.
  15. Mendoza, Enrique G, 1991. "Real Business Cycles in a Small Open Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 797-818, September.
  16. Hélène Rey & Philippe Martin, 2006. "Globalization and Emerging Markets: With or Without Crash?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/9261, Sciences Po.
  17. Oviedo, P. Marcelo, 2005. "World Interest Rate, Business Cycles, and Financial Intermediation in Small Open Economies," Staff General Research Papers 12360, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  18. Enrique G. Mendoza, 2005. "Real Exchange Rate Volatility and the Price of Nontradables in Sudden-Stop-Prone Economies," NBER Working Papers 11691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Levan Efremidze & Akinori Tomohara, 2011. "Have the Implications of Twin Deficits Changed?: Sudden Stops over Decades," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 66-76, February.
  2. Ceyhun Bora Durdu & Enrique G. Mendoza & Marco E. Terrones, 2007. "Precautionary Demand for Foreign Assets in Sudden Stop Economies: An Assessment of the New Merchantilism," NBER Working Papers 13123, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Caterina Mendicino, 2008. "On the Amplification Role of Collateral Constraints," Working Papers 08-23, Bank of Canada.
  4. Hale, Galina B & Razin, Assaf & Tong, Hui, 2007. "Creditor Protection and Stock Price Volatility," CEPR Discussion Papers 6540, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Thierry Tressel & Thierry Verdier, 2011. "Financial Globalization and the Governance of Domestic Financial Intermediaries," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 9(1), pages 130-175, 02.
  6. Aliya Algozhina, 2012. "Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions in an Emerging Open Economy: A Non-Ricardian DSGE Approach," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp476, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
  7. Almira Buzaushina & Michael Brei, 2009. "Matching International Financial Shocks in Emerging Markets," Bonn Econ Discussion Papers bgse2_2009, University of Bonn, Germany.
  8. Ronald U. Mendoza, 2007. "A Compendium of Policy Instruments to Enhance Financial Stability and Debt Management in Emerging Market Economies," Working Papers 48, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  9. Galina Hale & Assaf Razin & Hui Tong, 2008. "Credit Crunch, Creditor Protection, and Asset Prices," Working Papers 162008, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  10. Joyce, Joseph P. & Nabar, Malhar, 2009. "Sudden stops, banking crises and investment collapses in emerging markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 314-322, November.
  11. Hale, Galina B & Razin, Assaf & Tong, Hui, 2008. "Creditor Protection, Contagion, and Stock Market Price Volatility," CEPR Discussion Papers 6658, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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