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Are Underground Workers More Likely to be Underground Consumers?

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  • Fortin, Bernard

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  • Lacroix, Guy
  • Montmarquette, Claude

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of working in the underground sector on the level of individual underground expenditures. We show that it can be decomposed into a network effect, a non-separability effect and an income effect. Our empirical analysis uses micro data from a randomized survey conducted in the Province of Quebec during 1993. GMM methods allow us to take into account censoring and measurement error on the dependent variable as well as the possible endogeneity of the conditioning labor supply variables. We find that an increase in the underground labor supply has a strong positive effect on the level of underground expenditures. This relationship amplifies the impact of tax policy and of the enforcement system on the size of the underground economy. Cet article étudie l'effet du travail au noir sur le niveau des achats au noir des individus. On montre qu'il peut se décomposer en un effet de réseau, un effet de non-séparabilité et un effet revenu. Notre analyse empirique utilise des micro-données tirées d'une enquêteréalisée au Québec pour 1993. La méthode des moments généralisés nous permet de tenir compte de la censure et des erreurs de mesure sur la variable dépendante ainsi que de l'endogénéité des variables d'offre de travail qui conditionnent les décisions de consommation. Selon nos résultats, une hausse de l'offre de travail au noir accroît de façon importante le niveau des dépenses au noir. Cet effet amplifie l'impact des politiques de taxation et de contrôle fiscal sur la taille de l'économie souterraine.

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Paper provided by Université Laval - Département d'économique in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 9710.

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Date of creation: 1997
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Handle: RePEc:lvl:laeccr:9710

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  1. Neary, J.P & Roberts, K.W.S, 1978. "The Theory of Household Behaviour under Rationing," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 132, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
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  12. Kesselman, Jonathan R., 1989. "Income tax evasion : An intersectoral analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 137-182, March.
  13. Cowell, F A, 1990. "Tax Sheltering and the Cost of Evasion," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 231-43, January.
  14. Lemieux, Thomas & Fortin, Bernard & Frechette, Pierre, 1994. "The Effect of Taxes on Labor Supply in the Underground Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 231-54, March.
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  17. Stapleton, David C & Young, Douglas J, 1984. "Censored Normal Regression with Measurement Error on the Dependent Variable," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 737-60, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Bruno Chiarini & Elisabetta Marzano, 2004. "Market Comsumption And Hidden Consumption. A Test For Substitutability," Working Papers 7_2004, D.E.S. (Department of Economic Studies), University of Naples "Parthenope", Italy.
  2. Philippe Adair, 2009. "Économie non observée et emploi informel dans les pays de l'Union européenne. Une comparaison des estimations et des déterminants," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1117-1153.
  3. Thiele, Rainer & Böhme, Marcus, 2011. "Is the Informal Sector Constrained from the Demand Side? Evidence for Six West African Capitals," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 76, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  4. Amedeo Piolatto, 2014. "Itemised deductions: a device to reduce tax evasion," Working Papers 2014/9, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
  5. Tilman Bruck & John P. Haisken-De New & Klaus Zimmermann, 2006. "Creating low skilled jobs by subsidizing market-contracted household work," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 899-911.
  6. Piolatto, Amedeo, 2008. "Tax evasion and deductible expenses," MPRA Paper 10136, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jul 2008.
  7. Benoit Dostie & Désiré Vencatachellum, 2004. "Compulsory and Voluntary Remittances: Evidence from Child Domestic Workers in Tunisia," Cahiers de recherche 04-04, HEC Montréal, Institut d'économie appliquée.
  8. François Gardes & Christophe Starzec, 2009. "Polish Households' Behavior in the Regular and Informal Economies," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1181-1210.
  9. Casola, Luca & Kemp, Simon & Mackenzie, Alexander, 2009. "Consumer decisions in the black market for stolen or counterfeit goods," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 162-171, April.
  10. Marcus Böhme, Rainer Thiele, 2012. "Informal-formal Linkages and Informal Enterprise Performance in Urban West Africa," Kiel Working Papers 1751, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  11. Jan Hanousek & Filip Palda, 2002. "The Evolution of Tax Evasion in the Czech Republic: A Markov Chain Analysis," Public Economics 0205002, EconWPA.

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