Household Economic Status, Schooling Costs, and Schooling Bias Against Non-biological Children in Malawi
AbstractThe paper examines the relationship between household income and schooling costs in the presence of intrahousehold schooling bias against non-biological children. To this end, we construct a two-period model of intrahousehold schooling bias. The model predicts that there is an asymmetry in the impact of changes in costs and income on schooling in the sense that the impact is larger for the non-biological child. It predicts that the asymmetry increases as the relationship distance between the non-biological child and the parents gets wider. It also shows that an increase in cost of schooling leads to a bigger reduction in schooling for poor households, and that the di¤erence in the impact of cost changes between the biological and the non-biological child declines as household income increases i.e. there is convergence. And the convergence is faster the more distantly related to the parents the non-biological child is. An empirical investigation of these predictions using the Second Malawi Integrated Household Survey (IHS2) data, shows that when current enrolment and grade attainment are used to measure schooling, the price and income elasticities of schooling are larger for non-biological children. The results also indicate that households in the lowest income quintile (the poorest) have the largest price elasticities, and households in the highest income quintile (the wealthiest) have the smallest price elasticities. We also find that the price elasticities for biological and non-biological children converge as we move from the lowest income quintile to the highest income quintile, and that the convergence is faster for non-biological children who are non-relatives.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town in its series SALDRU Working Papers with number 48.
Date of creation: Sep 2010
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Leslie Social Science Building, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701
Phone: +27 21 650 5696
Fax: +27 21 650 5697
Web page: http://www.saldru.uct.ac.za/
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Mussa, Richard, 2009. "Household economic status, schooling costs, and schooling bias against non-biological children in Malawi," MPRA Paper 15855, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Jun 2009.
- D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-02-26 (All new papers)
- NEP-EDU-2011-02-26 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2011-02-26 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gary S. Becker, 1974.
"A Theory of Social Interactions,"
NBER Working Papers
0042, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Miles S. Kimball, 1989.
"Precautionary Saving in the Small and in the Large,"
NBER Working Papers
2848, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kimball, Miles S, 1990. "Precautionary Saving in the Small and in the Large," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 53-73, January.
- Doss, Cheryl R., 1996. "Testing among models of intrahousehold resource allocation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(10), pages 1597-1609, October.
- Mukherjee, Sanjukta & Benson, Todd, 2003. "The Determinants of Poverty in Malawi, 1998," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 339-358, February.
- Pushkar Maitra, 2001.
"Schooling and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Bangladesh,"
ASARC Working Papers
2001-07, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
- Pushkar Maitra, 2003. "Schooling and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Bangladesh," Education Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 129-153.
- Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2005. "Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 409-51, January.
- David Bishai & Heena Brahmbhatt & Ron Gray & Godfrey Kigozi & David Serwadda & Nelson Sewankambo & El Daw Suliman & Fred Wabwire-Mangen & Maria Wawer, 2003. "Does biological relatedness affect child survival?," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 8(9), pages 261-278, May.
- Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John, 1994. "Women's income and boy-girl anthropometric status in the Cote d'Ivoire," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 543-553, April.
- Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E., 1999. "Schooling of girls and boys in a West African country: the effects of parental education, income, and household structure," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 63-87, February.
- Behrman, Jere R & Pollak, Robert A & Taubman, Paul, 1986. "Do Parents Favor Boys?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(1), pages 33-54, February.
- Silvia Pasqua, 2005. "Gender Bias in Parental Investments in Children’s Education: A Theoretical Analysis," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 291-314, 09.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Khan, Shahrukh & Ross, David & Sabot, Richard, 1997. "School quality and cognitive achievement production: A case study for rural Pakistan," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 127-142, April.
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson & Joseph Ableidinger, 2004.
"Orphans in Africa: Parental Death, Poverty and School Enrollment,"
183, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson & Joseph Ableidinger, 2004. "Orphans in Africa: parental death, poverty, and school enrollment," Demography, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 483-508, August.
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson & Joseph Ableidinger, 2004. "Orphans in Africa: Parental Death, Poverty and School Enrollment," Working Papers 256, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Shapiro, David & Oleko Tambashe, B., 2001. "Gender, poverty, family structure, and investments in children's education in Kinshasa, Congo," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 359-375, August.
- Tansel, Aysit, 1997. "Schooling Attainment, Parental Education, and Gender in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(4), pages 825-56, July.
- Luis Felipe López-Calva & Koji Miyamoto, 2004. "Filial Obligations and Child Labor," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 489-504, 08.
- Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Khan, Shahrukh & Ross, David R. & Sabot, Richard, 1996. "Decomposing the regional gap in cognitive skills in rural Pakistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-76.
- King, Elizabeth M. & Lillard, Lee A., 1987. "Education policy and schooling attainment in Malaysia and the Philippines," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 167-181, April.
- Davies, James B & Zhang, Junsen, 1995. "Gender Bias, Investments in Children, and Bequests," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(3), pages 795-818, August.
- Rose, Elaina, 2000. "Gender Bias, Credit Constraints and Time Allocation in Rural India," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(465), pages 738-58, July.
- Frederick J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Cinderella Goes to School: The Effects of Child Fostering on School Enrollment in South Africa," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(3).
- Cigno, Alessandro, 1993. "Intergenerational transfers without altruism : Family, market and state," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 505-518, November.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1997.
"Does the Labour Market Explain Lower Female Schooling in India?,"
STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers
01, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1998. "Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?," The Journal of Development Studies, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 39-65.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alison Siljeur).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.