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Strategic Behavior across Gender: A Comparison of Female and Male Expert Chess Players

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Author Info

  • Gerdes, Christer

    ()
    (SOFI, Stockholm University)

  • Gränsmark, Patrik

    ()
    (SOFI, Stockholm University)

Abstract

This paper aims to measure differences in risk behavior among expert chess players. The study employs a panel data set on international chess with 1.4 million games recorded over a period of 11 years. The structure of the data set allows us to use individual fixed-effect estimations to control for aspects such as innate ability as well as other characteristics of the players. Most notably, the data contains an objective measure of individual playing strength, the so-called Elo rating. In line with previous research, we find that women are more risk-averse than men. A novel finding is that males choose more aggressive strategies when playing against female opponents even though such strategies reduce their winning probability.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4793.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Labour Economics, 2010, 17 (5), 766-775
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4793

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Related research

Keywords: culture; gender; competitiveness; risk aversion; mixed-sex competition;

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References

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  1. Nekby, Lena & Skogman Thoursie , Peter & Vahtrik, Lars, 2007. "Gender and Self-Selection Into a Competitive Environment: Are Women More Overconfident Than Men?," Research Papers in Economics, Stockholm University, Department of Economics 2007:3, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  2. David Bjerk, 2008. "Glass Ceilings or Sticky Floors? Statistical Discrimination in a Dynamic Model of Hiring and Promotion," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 961-982, 07.
  3. Gerdes, Christer & Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "Strategic behavior across gender: A comparison of female and male expert chess players," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 766-775, October.
  4. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?," Discussion Papers, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research 04-030, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  5. Ignacio Palacios-Huerta & Oscar Volij, 2009. "Field Centipedes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 99(4), pages 1619-35, September.
  6. Uri Gneezy & Kenneth L. Leonard & John A. List, 2008. "Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence from a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society," NBER Working Papers 13727, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Holm, Hakan J., 2000. "Gender-Based Focal Points," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 292-314, August.
  8. Bengtsson, Claes & Persson, Mats & Willenhag, Peter, 2005. "Gender and overconfidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 199-203, February.
  9. Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Poulsen, Anders & Villeval, Marie Claire, 2005. "Male and Female Competitive Behavior: Experimental Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 1833, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Kenn Ariga & Giorgio Brunello & Roki Iwahashi & Lorenzo Rocco, 2008. "The Stairways to Heaven: A Model of Career Choice in Sports and Games, with an Application to Chess," KIER Working Papers 646, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
  11. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
  12. Melissa Osborne & Herbert Gintis & Samuel Bowles, 2001. "The Determinants of Earnings: A Behavioral Approach," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1137-1176, December.
  13. Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2001. "Boys Will Be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence, And Common Stock Investment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 116(1), pages 261-292, February.
  14. James Albrecht & Anders Bjorklund & Susan Vroman, 2003. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 145-177, January.
  15. Booth, Alison L., 2009. "Gender and Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 7437, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Bas ter Weel, 2008. "The Noncognitive Determinants of Labor Market and Behavioral Outcomes: Introduction to the Symposium," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  17. Christina Jonung & Ann-Charlotte Ståhlberg, 2008. "Reaching the Top? On Gender Balance in the Economics Profession," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 5(2), pages 174-192, May.
  18. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance In Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Björn Frank & Stefan Krabel, 2012. "Gens una sumus? – Or Does Political Ideology Affect Experts’ Aesthetic Judgement of Chess Games," MAGKS Papers on Economics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung) 201237, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
  2. Koellinger, Ph.D. & Block, J.H., 2012. "Attractive Supervisors: How Does the Gender of the Supervisor Influence the Performance of the Supervisees?," ERIM Report Series Research in Management, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasm ERS-2012-003-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  3. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2012. "Masters of Our Time: Impatience and Self-control in High-level Chess Games," Working Paper Series 2/2012, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
  4. Gerdes, Christer & Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "Strategic Behavior across Gender: A Comparison of Female and Male Expert Chess Players," IZA Discussion Papers 4793, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "A Rib Less Makes you Consistent but Impatient: A Gender Comparison of Expert Chess Players," Working Paper Series 5/2010, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
  6. Dreber Almenberg, Anna & Gerdes, Christer & Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "Beauty Queens and Battling Knights: Risk Taking and Attractiveness in Chess," IZA Discussion Papers 5314, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. René Böheim & Mario Lackner, 2013. "Gender and Competition: Evidence from Jumping Competitions," Economics working papers, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria 2013-05, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  8. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "Social Screening and Cooperation Among Expert Chess Players," Working Paper Series 4/2010, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
  9. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2012. "Masters of our time: Impatience and self-control in high-level chess games," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 179-191.
  10. Lotito, Gianna & Migheli, Matteo & Ortona, Guido, 2011. "An experimental inquiry into the nature of relational goods," POLIS Working Papers, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS 160, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS.
  11. Lindquist, Gabriella Sjögren & Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny, 2011. ""Girls will be Girls", especially among Boys: Risk-taking in the "Daily Double" on Jeopardy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 112(2), pages 158-160, August.
  12. van Staveren, I.P., 2012. "The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis: an exploration of literature and bankers," ISS Working Papers - General Series, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague 545, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.

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