Social Pressure Influences Decisions of Individuals: Evidence from the Behavior of Football Referees
AbstractAnalyzing the neutrality of referees during twelve German premier league (1st Bundesliga) football seasons, this paper documents evidence that social forces influence agents' preferences and decisions. Those, who are appointed to be impartial, tend to favor the home team as they systematically award more injury time in close matches when the home team is behind. Referees also tend to favor the home team in decisions to award goals and penalty kicks. The composition of the crowd affects the size and the direction of the bias. The intensity of social pressure as measured by the crowd's proximity to the field determines how strongly referees' decisions are influenced. Not all agents are, however, affected to the same degree by social pressure.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1595.
Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: May 2005
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J00 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - General
- M50 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Personnel Economics - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Akerlof, George A, 1980.
"A Theory of Social Custom, of Which Unemployment May be One Consequence,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 94(4), pages 749-75, June.
- George A. Akerlof, 1978. "A theory of social custom, of which unemployment may be one consequence," Special Studies Papers 118, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Mark Duggan & Steven D. Levitt, 2002.
"Winning Isn't Everything: Corruption in Sumo Wrestling,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1594-1605, December.
- Mark Duggan & Steven D. Levitt, 2000. "Winning Isn't Everything: Corruption in Sumo Wrestling," NBER Working Papers 7798, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios-Huerta & Canice Prendergast, 2005.
"Favoritism Under Social Pressure,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 208-216, May.
- Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios-Huerta & Canice Prendergast, 2001. "Favoritism Under Social Pressure," Working Papers 2001-16, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios & Canice Prendergast, 2001. "Favoritism Under Social Pressure," NBER Working Papers 8376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bernheim, B Douglas, 1994. "A Theory of Conformity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(5), pages 841-77, October.
- Prendergast, Canice & Topel, Robert H, 1996.
"Favoritism in Organizations,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 958-78, October.
- Dohmen, Thomas, 2003. "In Support of the Supporters? Do Social Forces Shape Decisions of the Impartial?," IZA Discussion Papers 755, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- David Austen-Smith & Roland G. Fryer, 2003. "The Economics of 'Acting White'," NBER Working Papers 9904, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Vincenzo Scoppa, 2008.
"Are subjective evaluations biased by social factors or connections? An econometric analysis of soccer referee decisions,"
Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 123-140, August.
- Scoppa, Vincenzo, 2008. "Are Subjective Evaluations Biased by Social Factors or Connections? An Econometric Analysis of Soccer Referee Decisions," MPRA Paper 15819, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Babatunde Buraimo & David Forrest & Robert Simmons, 2007. "The Twelfth Man? Refereeing Bias in English and German Soccer," Working Papers 0707, International Association of Sports Economists;North American Association of Sports Economists.
- Thomas J. Dohmen, 2010.
"Do Professionals Choke Under Pressure?,"
- Per Pettersson-Lidbom & Mikael Priks, 2007.
"Behavior under Social Pressure: Empty Italian Stadiums and Referee Bias,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1960, CESifo Group Munich.
- Pettersson-Lidbom, Per & Priks, Mikael, 2010. "Behavior under social pressure: Empty Italian stadiums and referee bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 212-214, August.
- Marco Caliendo & Dubravko Radic, 2006.
"Ten Do It Better, Do They?: An Empirical Analysis of an Old Football Myth,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
592, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Caliendo, Marco & Radic, Dubravko, 2006. "Ten Do It Better, Do They? An Empirical Analysis of an Old Football Myth," IZA Discussion Papers 2158, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Roberto Antonietti, 2008. "Il ruolo economico dell’arbitro di calcio: una rassegna della letteratura e alcune questioni aperte," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 4(3), pages 75-103, Dicembre.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.