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The Influence Of Social Forces: Evidence From The Behavior Of Football Referees

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  • THOMAS J. DOHMEN

Abstract

"Analyzing the neutrality of referees during 12 German premier league (1. Bundesliga) soccer seasons, this paper documents evidence that social forces influence agents' decisions. Referees, who are appointed to be impartial, tend to favor the home team by systematically awarding more stoppage time in close matches in which the home team is behind. They also favor the home team in decisions to award goals and penalty kicks. Crowd composition affects the size and the direction of the bias, and the crowd's proximity to the field is related to the quality of refereeing. "("JEL "J00) Copyright (c) 2008 Western Economic Association International.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Western Economic Association International in its journal Economic Inquiry.

Volume (Year): 46 (2008)
Issue (Month): 3 (07)
Pages: 411-424

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Handle: RePEc:bla:ecinqu:v:46:y:2008:i:3:p:411-424

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Cited by:
  1. Yamamura, Eiji, 2012. "Effect of the Fukushima accident on saving electricity: The case of the Japanese Professional Baseball League," MPRA Paper 42674, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Dawson, Peter & Dobson, Stephen, 2010. "The influence of social pressure and nationality on individual decisions: Evidence from the behaviour of referees," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 181-191, April.
  3. Frieling, Julius & Pohlkamp, Stefanie & Stöver, Jana & Vöpel, Henning, 2013. "Suarez und die "Hand Gottes": Wie fair ist Fußball?," HWWI Policy Papers 80, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
  4. Per Pettersson-Lidbom & Mikael Priks, 2007. "Behavior under Social Pressure: Empty Italian Stadiums and Referee Bias," CESifo Working Paper Series 1960, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Andrés J. Picazo-Tadeo & Francisco González-Gómez & Jorge Guardiola, 2011. "The importance of time in referee home bias due to social pressure. Evidence from Spanish football," FEG Working Paper Series 03/11, Faculty of Economics and Business (University of Granada).
  6. Nikolaus Beck & Mark Meyer, 2012. "Modeling team performance," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 335-356, August.
  7. Braga, Breno & Guillén, Diogo, 2012. "Working under pressure: Evidence from the impacts of soccer fans on players’ performance," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 212-215.
  8. Stephan Nuesch & Hartmut Haas, 2012. "Empirical Evidence on the “Never Change a Winning Team” Heuristic," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 232(3), pages 247-257, May.
  9. A Bryson & B Buraimo & R Simmons, 2010. "Do Salaries Improve Worker Performance?," Working Papers 611478, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
  10. Page, Katie & Page, Lionel, 2010. "Alone against the crowd: Individual differences in referees' ability to cope under pressure," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 192-199, April.
  11. Andrés Picazo-Tadeo & Francisco Gónzalez-Gómez & Jorge Guardiola Wanden-Berghe, 2011. "Referee home bias due to social pressure. Evidence from Spanish football," Working Papers 1119, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.

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