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Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

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  • Hanna, Rema N.
  • Greenstone, Michael

Abstract

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. The air pollution regulations were effective at reducing ambient concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The most successful air pollution regulation is associated with a modest and statistically insignificant decline in infant mortality. However, the water pollution regulations had no observable effect. Overall, these results contradict the conventional wisdom that environmental quality is a deterministic function of income and underscore the role of institutions and politics.

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File URL: http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/5131505/RWP11-034_Greenstone_Hanna.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Harvard Kennedy School of Government in its series Scholarly Articles with number 5131505.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Publication status: Published in HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series
Handle: RePEc:hrv:hksfac:5131505

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  1. Michael Greenstone & Justin Gallagher, 2005. "Does Hazardous Waste Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market and the Superfund Program," NBER Working Papers 11790, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Takeuchi, Akie & Cropper, Maureen & Bento, Antonio, 2006. "The impact of policies to control motor vehicle emissions in Mumbai, India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4059, The World Bank.
  3. Lucas W. Davis, 2008. "The Effect of Driving Restrictions on Air Quality in Mexico City," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(1), pages 38-81, 02.
  4. Michael Greenstone, 2003. "Estimating Regulation-Induced Substitution: The Effect of the Clean Air Act on Water and Ground Pollution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 442-448, May.
  5. Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
  6. Kenneth Y. Chay & Michael Greenstone, 2003. "Air Quality, Infant Mortality, and the Clean Air Act of 1970," NBER Working Papers 10053, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. William T. Harbaugh & Arik Levinson & David Molloy Wilson, 2002. "Reexamining The Empirical Evidence For An Environmental Kuznets Curve," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 541-551, August.
  8. Stern, David I. & Common, Michael S., 2001. "Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Sulfur?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 162-178, March.
  9. Henderson, J Vernon, 1996. "Effects of Air Quality Regulation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 789-813, September.
  10. Shafik, Nemat & Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit, 1992. "Economic growth and environmental quality : time series and cross-country evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 904, The World Bank.
  11. Kenneth Y. Chay & Michael Greenstone, 2005. "Does Air Quality Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(2), pages 376-424, April.
  12. Rema Hanna & Paulina Oliva, 2011. "The Effect of Pollution on Labor Supply: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Mexico City," NBER Working Papers 17302, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Hanna Rema Nadeem & Oliva Paulina, 2010. "The Impact of Inspections on Plant-Level Air Emissions," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-33, March.
  14. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
  15. Greenstone, Michael, 2004. "Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 585-611, May.
  16. Bell, Ruth & Narain, Urvashi, 2005. "Who Changed Delhi's Air? The Roles of the Court and the Executive in Environmental Decisionmaking," Discussion Papers, Resources For the Future dp-05-48, Resources For the Future.
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Cited by:
  1. Brainerd, Elizabeth & Menon, Nidhiya, 2012. "Seasonal Effects of Water Quality on Infant and Child Health in India," IZA Discussion Papers 6559, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Nicolas R. Ziebarth & Maike Schmitt & Martin Karlsson, 2014. "The Short-Term Population Health Effects of Weather and Pollution: Implications of Climate Change," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 646, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  3. Fernando Aragon & Juan Pablo Rud, 2012. "Mining, Pollution and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Ghana," Discussion Papers dp12-08, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University.
  4. Fernando Broner & Paula Bustos & Vasco M. Carvalho, 2012. "Sources of Comparative Advantage in Polluting Industries," NBER Working Papers 18337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Heutel, Garth & Ruhm, Christopher J., 2013. "Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality," Working Papers 13-7, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  6. Brainerd, Elizabeth & Menon, Nidhiya, 2014. "Seasonal effects of water quality: The hidden costs of the Green Revolution to infant and child health in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 49-64.

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