The impact of policies to control motor vehicle emissions in Mumbai, India
AbstractThis paper examines the impact of measures to reduce emissions from passenger transport, specifically buses, cars, and two-wheelers in Mumbai. These include converting diesel buses to compressed natural gas (CNG), as the Indian Supreme Court required in Delhi, which would necessitate an increase in bus fares to cover the cost of pollution controls. The authors model an increase in the price of gasoline, which should affect the ownership and use of cars and two-wheelers, as well as imposing a license fee on cars to retard growth in car ownership. The impact of each policy on emissions depends not only on how the policy affects the mode that is regulated, but on shifts to other modes. The results suggest that the most effective policy to reduce emissions from passenger vehicles-in terms of the total number of tons of PM10 (particulate matter that measure less than or equal to 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) reduced-is to convert diesel buses to CNG. The conversion of 3,391 diesel buses to CNG would result in an emissions reduction of 663 tons of PM10 a year, 14 percent of total emissions from transport. The bus conversion program passes the cost-benefit test. In contrast, the results suggest the elasticities of emissions from transport with respect to a gasoline tax and a tax on vehicle ownership are -0.04 and -0.10 respectively. As a consequence, it would take substantial increases in the gasoline tax or vehicle ownership tax to produce reductions in emissions similar to the bus conversion program. These results, however, reflect the low shares of cars and two-wheelers in the Mumbai emissions inventory and need not apply to cities, such as Delhi, where these shares are higher.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4059.
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Transport in Urban Areas; Transport and Environment; Roads&Highways; Urban Transport;
Other versions of this item:
- Akie Takeuchi & Maureen Cropper & Antonio Bento, 2007. "The Impact Of Policies To Control Motor Vehicle Emissions In Mumbai, India," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 27-46.
- NEP-ALL-2006-11-18 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2006-11-18 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-DEV-2006-11-18 (Development)
- NEP-ENE-2006-11-18 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2006-11-18 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-URE-2006-11-18 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eskeland, Gunnar S, 1994. "A Presumptive Pigovian Tax: Complementing Regulation to Mimic an Emissions Fee," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(3), pages 373-94, September.
- Train,Kenneth E., 2009.
"Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521766555, October.
- Fullerton, Don & West, Sarah E., 2002.
"Can Taxes on Cars and on Gasoline Mimic an Unavailable Tax on Emissions?,"
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,
Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 135-157, January.
- Don Fullerton & Sarah West, 1999. "Can Taxes on Cars and on Gasoline Mimic an Unavailable Tax on Emissions?," NBER Working Papers 7059, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kopits, Elizabeth & Cropper, Maureen, 2003. "Traffic fatalities and economic growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3035, The World Bank.
- Greenstone, Michael & Hanna, Rema, 2011.
"Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India,"
Working Paper Series
rwp11-034, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Rema Hanna & Michael Greenstone, 2011. "Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India," Working Papers id:4309, eSocialSciences.
- Michael Greenstone & Rema Hanna, 2011. "Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India," Working Papers 1114, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.
- Michael Greenstone & Rema Hanna, 2011. "Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India," NBER Working Papers 17210, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hanna, Rema N. & Greenstone, Michael, 2011. "Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India," Scholarly Articles 5131505, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
- Takeuchi, Akie & Cropper, Maureen L. & Bento, Antonio M., 2007.
"Measuring the Welfare Effects of Slum Improvement Programs: The Case of Mumbai,"
127020, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
- Takeuchi, Akie & Cropper, Maureen & Bento, Antonio, 2008. "Measuring the welfare effects of slum improvement programs: The case of Mumbai," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 65-84, July.
- Narain, Urvashi & Krupnick, Alan J., 2007. "The Impact of Delhi's CNG Program on Air Quality," Discussion Papers dp-07-06, Resources For the Future.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.