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The effect of changes in reserve requirements on investment and GNP

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  • Prakash Loungani
  • Mark Rush

Abstract

This paper provides evidence on the importance of the credit channel in the transmission of monetary policy. Changes in reserve requirements are used to measure "credit shocks." Reserve requirement changes are often made for regulatory reasons, and hence provide a more exogenous measure of credit shocks than the measures used in previous tests. To distinguish between the "money" and "credit" channels, the significance of the reserve requirements variable is studied in an empirical model that includes other monetary aggregates (either the monetary base or M1). We find that an increase in reserve requirements lowers aggregate investment, real GNP and commercial and industrial (C&I) loans made by banks.

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File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/ifdp/1994/471/ifdp471.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series International Finance Discussion Papers with number 471.

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Date of creation: 1994
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:471

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Keywords: Bank reserves ; Gross national product;

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References

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  1. Plosser, C.I., 1989. "Money And Business Cycles A Real Business Cycle Interpretation," RCER Working Papers 210, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  2. Blinder, Alan S & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1983. "Money, Credit Constraints, and Economic Activity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(2), pages 297-302, May.
  3. Prakash Loungani & Mark Rush, 1991. "The effect of changes in reserve requirements on investment and GNP," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  4. Mark L. Gertler & R. Glenn Hubbard, 1988. "Financial Factors in Business Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 2758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Gertler, Mark, 1988. "Financial Structure and Aggregate Economic Activity: An Overview," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(3), pages 559-88, August.
  6. Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein & David W. Wilcox, 1991. "Monetary policy and credit conditions: evidence from the composition of external finance," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 154, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Manchester, Joyce, 1989. "How Money Affects Real Output," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(1), pages 16-32, February.
  8. James, Christopher, 1987. "Some evidence on the uniqueness of bank loans," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 217-235, December.
  9. Robert J. Barro & Mark Rush, 1980. "Unanticipated Money and Economic Activity," NBER Chapters, in: Rational Expectations and Economic Policy, pages 23-73 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Robert J. Gordon & John M. Veitch, 1987. "Fixed Investment in the American Business Cycle, 1919-83," NBER Working Papers 1426, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. G.J. Santoni, 1985. "The monetary control act, reserve taxes and the stock prices of commercial banks," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jun, pages 12-20.
  12. Ben S. Bernanke & Alan S. Blinder, 1988. "Credit, Money, and Aggregate Demand," NBER Working Papers 2534, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Joseph H. Haslag & Scott E. Hein, 1989. "Reserve requirements, the monetary base, and economic activity," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Mar, pages 1-15.
  14. Hamilton, James D., 1987. "Monetary factors in the great depression," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 145-169, March.
  15. Rush, Mark, 1985. "Unexpected monetary disturbances during the gold standard era," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 309-321, May.
  16. King, Robert G & Plosser, Charles I, 1984. "Money, Credit, and Prices in a Real Business Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 363-80, June.
  17. Rush, Mark, 1986. "Unexpected Money and Unemployment, 1920 to 1983," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(3), pages 259-74, August.
  18. Fama, Eugene F., 1985. "What's different about banks?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 29-39, January.
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