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Short-Term Loans and Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Lending in Early America

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  • Howard Bodenhorn

Abstract

Recent banking theory holds that durable firm-bank relationships are valuable to both parties. Using contract-specific loan records of a nineteenth-century U.S. bank, this paper shows that firms that form extended relationships with banks receive three principal benefits. First, firms with extended relationships face lower credit costs. As the bank-borrower relationship matures credit costs decline. Second, long-term customers are asked to provide fewer personal guarantees. Third-party guarantees are an efficient alternative to collateral in certain circumstances, and long-term clients are asked to provide fewer guarantees. Third, long-term bank customers more likely to have loan terms renegotiated during a credit crunch. Firms without access to public debt markets rely on bank credit, and continued access during a credit crunch is important for small, informationally opaque firms.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Historical Working Papers with number 0137.

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Date of creation: Dec 2001
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Publication status: published as Bodenhorn, Howard. "Short-Term Loans And Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Lending In Early America," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 2003, v35(4,Aug), 485-505.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberhi:0137

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Cited by:
  1. Wang, Ta-Chen, 2008. "Paying back to borrow more: Reputation and bank credit access in early America," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 477-488, September.
  2. Ginés Hernández Cánovas & Pedro Martínez Solano, 2003. "Relaciones Bancarias Y Sus Efectos Sobre Los Términos De La Deuda En Las Pymes," Working Papers. Serie EC 2003-07, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  3. Eugene Kang & Asghar Zardkoohi & Ramona Paetzold & Donald Fraser, 2013. "Relationship banking and escalating commitments to bad loans," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 899-910, May.
  4. Karapetyan, Artashes & Stacescu, Bogdan, 2014. "Does information sharing reduce the role of collateral as a screening device?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 48-57.
  5. Behr, Patrick & Entzian, Annekathrin & Güttler, Andre, 2011. "How do lending relationships affect access to credit and loan conditions in microlending?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 2169-2178, August.
  6. Lionel Artige & Rosella Nicolini, 2010. "Memory in Contracts: The Experience of the EBRD (1991-2003)," Working Papers wpdea1002, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  7. Degryse, H.A. & Ongena, S., 2006. "The Impact of Competition on Bank Orientation," Discussion Paper 2006-68, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  8. Ardic, Oya Pinar & Mylenko, Nataliya & Saltane, Valentina, 2011. "Small and medium enterprises : a cross-country analysis with a new data set," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5538, The World Bank.
  9. Brick, Ivan E. & Palia, Darius, 2007. "Evidence of jointness in the terms of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 452-476, July.
  10. Karlyn Mitchell & Douglas K. Pearce, 2004. "Which Loans are Relationship Loans? Evidence from the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 9(2), pages 1-36, Summer.
  11. Tensie Steijvers & Wim Voordeckers & Koen Vanhoof, 2010. "Collateral, relationship lending and family firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 243-259, April.
  12. HASUMI Ryo & HIRATA Hideaki & ONO Arito, 2011. "Differentiated Use of Small Business Credit Scoring by Relationship Lenders and Transactional Lenders: Evidence from firm-bank matched data in Japan," Discussion papers 11070, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  13. Andreas Dietrich, 2012. "Explaining loan rate differentials between small and large companies: evidence from Switzerland," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 481-494, May.
  14. Tlili, Rim, 2012. "Comment justifier la multibancarité au sein des PME ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/10919 edited by Etner, François, November.
  15. Gómez-González, José Eduardo & Reyes, Nidia Ruth, 2011. "The number of banking relationships and the business cycle: New evidence from Colombia," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 408-418, September.
  16. Djedidi-Kooli, Salima, 2009. "L’accès au financement des PME en France : quel rôle joué par la structure du système bancaire ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/8354 edited by Etner, François, November.
  17. Colombatto, Enrico & Melnik, Arie & Monticone, Chiara, . "Relationships and the availability of credit to New Small Firms," Working Papers WP2011/11, University of Haifa, Department of Economics, revised 23 Oct 2011.
  18. Howard Bodenhorn, 2005. "Usury Ceilings, Relationships and Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from Nineteenth Century," NBER Working Papers 11734, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Tra, Pham Thi Thu & Lensink, Robert, 2006. "The Determinants of Loan Contracts to Business Firms: Empirical Evidence from a Private Bank in Vietnam," Working Paper Series RP2006/86, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

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