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The effect of changes in reserve requirements on investment and GNP

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  • Prakash Loungani
  • Mark Rush

Abstract

This paper provides evidence on the importance of the credit channel in the transmission of monetary policy. Changes in reserve requirements are used to measure \"credit shocks.\" Reserve requirement changes are often made for regulatory reasons, and hence provide a more exogenous measure of credit shocks than the measures used in previous tests. To distinguish between the \"money\" and \"credit\" channels, the significance of the reserve requirements variable is studied in an empirical model that includes other monetary aggregates (either the monetary base or M1). We find that an increase in reserve requirements lowers aggregate investment, real GNP and commercial and industrial (C&I) loans made by banks.
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Suggested Citation

  • Prakash Loungani & Mark Rush, 1991. "The effect of changes in reserve requirements on investment and GNP," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhma:91-21
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Michael J. Dueker & Apostolos Serletis, 1996. "The sensitivity of empirical studies to alternative measures of the monetary base and reserves," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 51-69.
    2. Cabos Karen & Funke Michael & Siegfried Nikolaus A., 2001. "Some Thoughts on Monetary Targeting vs. Inflation Targeting," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 2(3), pages 219-238, August.
    3. Menzie Chinn & Michael Dooley, 1995. "National, regional and international capital markets: Measurement and implications for domestic financial fragility," International Finance 9508006, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Velibor Milošević, 2014. "Use and Limitations of the Reserve Requirement Policy in Montenegro," Journal of Central Banking Theory and Practice, Central bank of Montenegro, vol. 3(2), pages 5-20.
    5. Menzie Chinn & Michael Dooley, 1995. "Asia-Pacific Capital Markets: Measurement of Integration and the Implications for Economic Activity," NBER Working Papers 5280, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Haslag, Joseph H. & Hein, Scott E., 1995. "Does it matter how monetary policy is implemented?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 359-386, April.
    7. Chinn, Menzie-D & Dooley, Michael-P, 1997. "Financial Repression and Capital Mobility: Why Capital Flows and Covered Interest Rate Differentials Fail to Measure Capital Market Integration," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 15(2), pages 81-103, December.
    8. Elliot Boateng & Mary Amponsah & Collins Annor Baah, 2017. "Complementarity Effect of Financial Development and FDI on Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Panel Data Analysis," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 29(2), pages 305-318, June.
    9. Edwards, Sebastian & Vegh, Carlos A., 1997. "Banks and macroeconomic disturbances under predetermined exchange rates," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 239-278, October.
    10. Acosta, Pablo & Loza, Andres, 2005. "Short and Long Run Determinants of Private Investment in Argentina," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 8(2), pages 1-18, November.
    11. Loungani, Prakash & Rush, Mark, 1995. "The Effect of Changes in Reserve Requirements on Investment and GNP," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 511-526, May.
    12. Reinhart, Carmen M & Reinhart, Vincent R, 1999. "On the Use of Reserve Requirements in Dealing with Capital Flow Problems," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 27-54, January.
    13. Glocker, Christian & Towbin, Pascal, 2015. "Reserve requirements as a macroprudential instrument – Empirical evidence from Brazil," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 158-176.
    14. Joseph H. Haslag & Scott E. Hein, 1993. "Constructing an alternative measure of changes in reserve requirement ratios," Working Papers 9306, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    15. Ryota Nakatani, 2016. "Twin Banking and Currency Crises and Monetary Policy," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 27(4), pages 747-767, September.
    16. Pablo Acosta & Andrés Loza, 2005. "Short and Long Run Determinants of Private Investment in Argentina," Journal of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 389-406, November.
    17. Karen Cabos & Nikolaus Siegfried, 2004. "Controlling inflation in Euroland," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 549-558.
    18. Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus & von Schweinitz, Gregor & Wendt, Katharina, 2019. "On the empirics of reserve requirements and economic growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 253-274.
    19. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements," WIFO Working Papers 420, WIFO.
    20. Valdivia Coria, Joab Dan & Valdivia Coria, Daney David, 2018. "Leaning Against the Wind: Efectos de la Política Macroprudencial en el Crecimiento Sectorial [Leaning Against the Wind: Effects of Macroprudential Policy on Sectoral Growth]," MPRA Paper 93441, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Joseph H. Haslag & Scott E. Hein, 1995. "Measuring the policy effects of changes in reserve requirement ratios," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q III, pages 2-15.
    22. Xiaohui Zhang & Zhihong Ji & Yong Cui, 2009. "Reserve requirement, reserve requirement tax and money control in China: 1984–2007," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer;Higher Education Press, vol. 4(3), pages 361-383, September.

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    Keywords

    Bank reserves; Gross national product;

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