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Threshold cointegration and nonlinear adjustment between CO2 and income: the environmental Kuznets curve in Spain, 1857-2007

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  • Vicente Esteve

    (Universidad de Valencia and Universidad de La Laguna, Spain)

  • Cecilio Tamarit

    (Universidad de Valencia, Spain)

Abstract

In this paper we model the long-run relationship between per capita CO2 and per capita income for the Spanish economy over the period 1857-2007. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (ECK) the relationship between the two variables has an inverted-U shape. However, previous studies for the Spanish economy only considered the existence of linear relationships. Such an approach may lack flexibility to detect the true shape of the relationship. Our empirical methodology accounts for a possible non-linear relationship through the use of threshold cointegration techniques. Our results confirm the non-linearity of the link between the two above-mentioned variables pointing to the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for the Spanish case.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia in its series Working Papers with number 1106.

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Length: 19 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eec:wpaper:1106

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Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; CO2 emissions; nonlinear relationship; threshold cointegration;

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Cited by:
  1. Ozcan, Burcu, 2013. "The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Middle East countries: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1138-1147.
  2. Al-mulali, Usama & Foon Tang, Chor, 2013. "Investigating the validity of pollution haven hypothesis in the gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 813-819.
  3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sbia, Rashid & Hamdi, Helmi, 2013. "The Environmental cost of Skiing in the Desert? Evidence from Cointegration with unknown Structural breaks in UAE," MPRA Paper 48007, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 03 Jul 2013.
  4. Alkhathlan, Khalid & Javid, Muhammad, 2013. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Saudi Arabia: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1525-1532.
  5. Muhammad, Javid & Ghulam Fatima, Sharif, 2013. "Energy Consumption, Financial development and CO2 emissions in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 48287, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Robalino-López, Andrés & García-Ramos, José-Enrique & Golpe, Antonio A. & Mena-Nieto, Ángel, 2014. "System dynamics modelling and the environmental Kuznets curve in Ecuador (1980–2025)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 923-931.

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