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Are Education and Entrepreneurial Income Endogenous and Do Family Background Variables Make Sense as Instruments?: A Bayesian Analysis

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  • Jörn H. Block
  • Lennart F. Hoogerheide
  • A. Roy Thurik

Abstract

Education is a well-known driver of (entrepreneurial) income. The measurement of its influence, however, suffers from endogeneity suspicion. For instance, ability and occupational choice are mentioned as driving both the level of (entrepreneurial) income and of education. Using instrumental variables can provide a way out. However, three questions remain: whether endogeneity is really present, whether it matters and whether the selected instruments make sense. Using Bayesian methods, we find that the relationship between education and entrepreneurial income is indeed endogenous and that the impact of endogeneity on the estimated relationship between education and income is sizeable. We do so using family background variables and show that relaxing the strict validity assumption of these instruments does not lead to strongly different results. This is an important finding because family background variables are generally strongly correlated with education and are available in most datasets. Our approach is applicable beyond the field of returns to education for income. It applies wherever endogeneity suspicion arises and the three questions become relevant.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in its series SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research with number 329.

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Length: 27 p.
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp329

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Keywords: Education; income; entrepreneurship; self-employment; endogeneity; instrumental variables; Bayesian analysis; family background variables;

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References

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  1. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2008. "Education And Entrepreneurship Selection And Performance: A Review Of The Empirical Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 795-841, December.
  2. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2003. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-046/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Sep 2004.
  3. van Praag, Mirjam & van Witteloostuijn, Arjen & van der Sluis, Justin, 2009. "Returns for Entrepreneurs vs. Employees: The Effect of Education and Personal Control on the Relative Performance of Entrepreneurs vs. Wage Employees," IZA Discussion Papers 4628, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. C. Mirjam van Praag, 2003. "Business Survival and Success of Young Small Business Owners," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-050/3, Tinbergen Institute.
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Cited by:
  1. Frank M. Fossen & Tobias J. M. Büttner, 2012. "The Returns to Education for Opportunity Entrepreneurs, Necessity Entrepreneurs, and Paid Employees," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1241, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.

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