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Entrepreneurial exit in real and imagined markets

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  • Erik Stam
  • Roy Thurik
  • Peter van der Zwan

Abstract

Entrepreneurs exit their businesses due to selection pressures they experience in the market place. In addition to this well-known ex-post decision to exit, entrepreneurs select ex-ante whether they are willing to pursue an entrepreneurial career at all, or to give up their entrepreneurial intentions. Hardly anything is known about the latter selection process in imagined markets that precedes the creation of variation and selection process in real markets. This article explores these two selection processes using survey data on 20,000 individuals in 27 European countries and the United States in 2007. We distinguish business failure from exit by sell-off. Individuals in the United States are less likely to exit imagined markets and are more likely to exit the real market than are Europeans. Individuals in a corporatist welfare state regime have relatively high chances to exit imagined markets but low chances to exit real markets (due to failure). Business owners in metropolitan and urban environments are more likely to fail than their rural counterparts, while individuals with a high risk tolerance and individuals with a self-employed parent are less likely to exit imagined or real markets (via business failure). In short, this study shows that exit in real and in imagined markets is differently affected by individual characteristics as well as by the competitive and institutional environment. Copyright 2010 The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Associazione ICC. All rights reserved., Oxford University Press.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1093/icc/dtp047
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Oxford University Press in its journal Industrial and Corporate Change.

Volume (Year): 19 (2010)
Issue (Month): 4 (August)
Pages: 1109-1139

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Handle: RePEc:oup:indcch:v:19:y:2010:i:4:p:1109-1139

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References

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  1. André van Stel & Kashifa Suddle, 2006. "The Impact of New Firm Formation on Regional Development in the Netherlands," Scales Research Reports H200604, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  2. Marco Gelderen & Roy Thurik & Niels Bosma, 2005. "Success and Risk Factors in the Pre-Startup Phase," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 365-380, 05.
  3. Peter van der Zwan & Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "The Entrepreneurial Ladder and its Determinants," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 06-103/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 14 Nov 2007.
  4. C. Mirjam van Praag, 2003. "Business Survival and Success of Young Small Business Owners," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-050/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  5. Dorothea Schäfer & Oleksandr Talavera, 2009. "Small business survival and inheritance: evidence from Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 95-109, January.
  6. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2003. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-046/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Sep 2004.
  7. van Praag, C M & Cramer, J S, 2001. "The Roots of Entrepreneurship and Labour Demand: Individual Ability and Low Risk Aversion," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(269), pages 45-62, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
  2. Block, J.H. & Thurik, A.R. & van der Zwan, P.W. & Walter, S., 2010. "Business Takeover or New Venture? Individual and Environmental Determinants from a Cross-Country Study," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2010-042-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
  3. Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers & F. Stam, 2013. "Institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations," Scales Research Reports H201213, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  4. Joern H. Block & Lennart Hoogerheide & Roy Thurik, 2010. "Are Education and Entrepreneurial Income Endogenous and do Family Background Variables make Sense as Instruments? A Bayesian Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-024/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  5. Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers & F. Stam, 2010. "Intrapreneurship - An international study," Scales Research Reports H201005, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  6. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2012. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2011 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201211, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  7. F. Stam & Neil Thompson & Andrea Herrmann & Marko Hekkert, 2012. "The Environmental Regulation Paradox for Clean Tech Ventures," Scales Research Reports H201217, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  8. Vera Rocha & Anabela Carneiro & Celeste Amorim Varum, 2013. "Entrepreneurship Dynamics: Entry Routes, Business-Owner's Persistence and Exit Modes," CEF.UP Working Papers 1310, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  9. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2011. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2010 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201108, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  10. Jolanda Hessels & Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik & Peter Zwan, 2011. "Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 447-471, August.
  11. Joern H. Block & Lennart Hoogerheide & Roy Thurik, 2009. "Education and Entrepreneurial Choice: An Instrumental Variables Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-088/4, Tinbergen Institute, revised 23 Nov 2010.
  12. N.S. Bosma & E. Stam & S. Wennekers, 2012. "Entrepreneurial Employee Activity: A Large Scale International Study," Working Papers 12-12, Utrecht School of Economics.
  13. Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2013. "Start-up motivation and (in)voluntary exit," Scales Research Reports H201309, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  14. Peter van der Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Progress: Climbing The Entrepreneurial Ladder in Europe and The US," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-070/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Mar 2010.
  15. Rui Baptista & Murat Karaöz & Joana Mendonça, 2014. "The impact of human capital on the early success of necessity versus opportunity-based entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 831-847, April.
  16. van Gelderen, A.M. & Patel, B.P. & Thurik, A.R., 2009. "Encountered Problems and Outcome Status in Nascent Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2009-008-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.

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