Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Family background variables as instruments for education in income regressions: A Bayesian analysis

Contents:

Author Info

  • Hoogerheide, Lennart
  • Block, Joern H.
  • Thurik, Roy

Abstract

The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct effects of the instrument on the dependent variable, the results do not deviate much from the benchmark case of no such effect (perfect validity of the instrument's exclusion restriction). In many cases, the size of the bias is smaller than the width of the 95% posterior interval for the effect of education on income. Thus, a violation of the strict validity assumption does not necessarily lead to results which are strongly different from those of the strict validity case. This finding provides confidence in the use of family background variables as instruments in income regressions.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027277571200026X
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Economics of Education Review.

Volume (Year): 31 (2012)
Issue (Month): 5 ()
Pages: 515-523

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:31:y:2012:i:5:p:515-523

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/econedurev

Related research

Keywords: Education; Family background variables; Earnings; Income; Instrumental variables; Bayesian analysis; Exclusion restriction;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Trostel, Philip & Walker, Ian & Woolley, Paul, 2002. "Estimates of the economic return to schooling for 28 countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 1-16, February.
  2. HOOGERHEIDE, Lennart F. & KAASHOEK, Johan F. & van DIJK, Herman K., . "On the shape of posterior densities and credible sets in instrumental variable regression models with reduced rank: an application of flexible sampling methods using neural networks," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1922, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  3. David Card, 2000. "Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems," NBER Working Papers 7769, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Hoogerheide, L.F. & Kleibergen, F.R. & van Dijk, H.K., 2006. "Natural conjugate priors for the instrumental variables regression model applied to the Angrist-Krueger data," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2006-02, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  5. Brunello, Giorgio & Comi, Simona, 2004. "Education and earnings growth: evidence from 11 European countries," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 75-83, February.
  6. Lennart Hoogerheide & Anne Opschoor & Herman K. van Dijk, 2011. "A Class of Adaptive EM-based Importance Sampling Algorithms for Efficient and Robust Posterior and Predictive Simulation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-004/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
  8. McKinley L. Blackburn & David Neumark, 1993. "Are OLS Estimates of the Return to Schooling Biased Downward? Another Look," NBER Working Papers 4259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Oosterbeek, Hessel & Webbink, Dinand, 2007. "Wage effects of an extra year of basic vocational education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 408-419, August.
  10. Flabbi, Luca & Paternostro, Stefano & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2008. "Returns to education in the economic transition: A systematic assessment using comparable data," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 724-740, December.
  11. Fabra, M. Eugenia & Camisón, Cesar, 2009. "Direct and indirect effects of education on job satisfaction: A structural equation model for the Spanish case," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 600-610, October.
  12. Garcia-Mainar, Inmaculada & Montuenga-Gomez, Victor M., 2005. "Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Portugal vs. Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 161-170, April.
  13. Orley Ashenfelter & Colm Harmon & Hessel Oosterbeek, 2000. "A Review of Estimates of the Schooling/Earnings Relationship, with Tests for Publication Bias," NBER Working Papers 7457, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. McKinley L. Blackburn & David Neumark, 1991. "Omitted-Ability Bias and the Increase in the Return to Schooling," NBER Working Papers 3693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Gert G. Wagner & Joachim R. Frick & Jürgen Schupp, 2007. "The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP): Scope, Evolution and Enhancements," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  16. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  17. Kleibergen, F.R. & Zivot, E., 1998. "Bayesian and classical approaches to instrumental variable regression," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 9835, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  18. Parker, Simon C. & van Praag, C. Mirjam, 2006. "Schooling, Capital Constraints, and Entrepreneurial Performance: The Endogenous Triangle," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 416-431, October.
  19. Griliches, Zvi & Mason, William M, 1972. "Education, Income, and Ability," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(3), pages S74-S103, Part II, .
  20. Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 1990. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," NBER Working Papers 3572, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Colm Harmon, 2011. "Economic Returns to Education: What We Know, What We Don’t Know, and Where We Are Going – Some Brief Pointers," Working Papers 201115, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  22. Dinand Webbink, 2005. "Causal Effects in Education," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 535-560, 09.
  23. Lennart Hoogerheide & Anne Opschoor & Herman K. van Dijk, 2011. "A Class of Adaptive EM-based Importance Sampling Algorithms for Efficient and Robust Posterior and Predictive Simulation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-004/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  24. Patrinos, Harry A. & Sakellariou, Chris, 2011. "Quality of Schooling, Returns to Schooling and the 1981 Vouchers Reform in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2245-2256.
  25. Behrman, Jere R., 1987. "Schooling in developing countries: Which countries are the Over- and underachievers and what is the schooling impact?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 111-127, April.
  26. Timothy G. Conley & Christian B. Hansen & Peter E. Rossi, 2012. "Plausibly Exogenous," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(1), pages 260-272, February.
  27. Angus S. Deaton, 2009. "Instruments of development: Randomization in the tropics, and the search for the elusive keys to economic development," NBER Working Papers 14690, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Fossen, Frank M. & Büttner, Tobias J. M., 2012. "The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees," Discussion Papers 2012/19, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
  2. Arnold Zellner (posthumously) & Tomohiro Ando & Nalan Basturk & Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2012. "Bayesian Analysis of Instrumental Variable Models: Acceptance-Rejection within Direct Monte Carlo," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-098/III, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Sanjaya DeSilva & Mohammed Mehrab Bin Bakhtiar, 2011. "Women, Schooling, and Marriage in Rural Philippines," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_701, Levy Economics Institute.
  4. Wang, Le, 2012. "Estimating Returns to Education when the IV Sample is Selective," IZA Discussion Papers 7103, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Block, Joern H. & Miller, Danny & Wagner, Dominik, 2014. "Bayesian methods in family business research," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 97-104.
  6. Nomen Nescio, 2013. "Nomen Nescio," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-095 not issued, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2008. "Quality of schooling, returns to schooling and the 1981 vouchers reform in Chile," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4617, The World Bank.
  8. Arnold Zellner (posthumously) & Tomohiro Ando & Nalan Basturk & Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2012. "Bayesian Analysis of Instrumental Variable Models: Acceptance-Rejection within Direct Monte Carlo," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-098/III, Tinbergen Institute.
  9. Nomen Nescio, 2013. "Nomen Nescio," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-095 not issued, Tinbergen Institute.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:31:y:2012:i:5:p:515-523. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.