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Entrepreneurial exit in real and imagined markets

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  • Roy Thurik
  • F. Stam
  • Peter van der Zwan

Abstract

Entrepreneurs exit their business due to selection pressures experienced in the market place, i.e. business failure. Next to this well known ex-post decision to exit, entrepreneurs select exantewhether they are willing to pursue an entrepreneurial career at all, or to give up theseentrepreneurial intentions. Hardly anything is known about the latter selection process in imagined markets that precedes the variety creation and selection process in real markets. This paper explores and explains the prevalence of these two selection processes using survey data on 20,000 individuals in 27 European countries and the US in 2007. We distinguish business failures from exit by sell-off. Results indicate that individuals in the US are less likely to exit imagined markets, and are more likely to have exited the real market (especially by selling their business) than Europeans. Individuals in a Corporatist welfare state regime have relatively high chances to exit imagined markets. Business owners in urban environments are more likely to fail, while individuals with a high risk tolerance, a high education and self-employed parents are less likely to exit in imagined as well as in real markets (via business failure). This study shows that exit in real and in imagined markets is differently affected by competition and institutions. These selection environments have differential effects on entrepreneurial aspirations and actions of individuals, and provide evidence for the dissimilar nature of exit in real and exit in imagined markets.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EIM Business and Policy Research in its series Scales Research Reports with number H200720.

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Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: 21 Dec 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:h200720

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References

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  1. André van Stel & Kashifa Suddle, 2006. "The Impact of New Firm Formation on Regional Development in the Netherlands," Scales Research Reports H200604, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  2. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2003. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-046/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Sep 2004.
  3. C. Mirjam van Praag, 2003. "Business Survival and Success of Young Small Business Owners," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-050/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo & Peter van der Zwan, 2006. "The entrepreneurial ladder and its determinants," Scales Research Reports H200620, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  5. Marco Gelderen & Roy Thurik & Niels Bosma, 2006. "Success and Risk Factors in the Pre-Startup Phase," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 319-335, 05.
  6. Dorothea Schäfer & Oleksandr Talavera, 2009. "Small business survival and inheritance: evidence from Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 95-109, January.
  7. van Praag, C M & Cramer, J S, 2001. "The Roots of Entrepreneurship and Labour Demand: Individual Ability and Low Risk Aversion," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(269), pages 45-62, February.
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Cited by:
  1. Rui Baptista & Murat Karaöz & Joana Mendonça, 2014. "The impact of human capital on the early success of necessity versus opportunity-based entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 831-847, April.
  2. F. Stam & Neil Thompson & Andrea Herrmann & Marko Hekkert, 2012. "The Environmental Regulation Paradox for Clean Tech Ventures," Scales Research Reports H201217, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  3. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2012. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2011 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201211, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  4. Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2013. "Start-up motivation and (in)voluntary exit," Scales Research Reports H201309, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  5. Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers & F. Stam, 2010. "Intrapreneurship - An international study," Scales Research Reports H201005, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  6. Joern H. Block & Lennart Hoogerheide & Roy Thurik, 2010. "Are Education and Entrepreneurial Income Endogenous and do Family Background Variables make Sense as Instruments? A Bayesian Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-024/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Roy Thurik & Jolanda Hessels & Isabel Grilo & Peter van der Zwan, 2009. "Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement," Scales Research Reports H200910, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  8. N.S. Bosma & E. Stam & S. Wennekers, 2012. "Entrepreneurial Employee Activity: A Large Scale International Study," Working Papers 12-12, Utrecht School of Economics.
  9. Vera Rocha & Anabela Carneiro & Celeste Amorim Varum, 2013. "Entrepreneurship Dynamics: Entry Routes, Business-Owner's Persistence and Exit Modes," CEF.UP Working Papers 1310, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  10. Joern H. Block & Lennart Hoogerheide & Roy Thurik, 2009. "Education and Entrepreneurial Choice: An Instrumental Variables Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-088/4, Tinbergen Institute, revised 23 Nov 2010.
  11. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
  12. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2011. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2010 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201108, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  13. Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers & F. Stam, 2013. "Institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations," Scales Research Reports H201213, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  14. van Gelderen, A.M. & Patel, B.P. & Thurik, A.R., 2009. "Encountered Problems and Outcome Status in Nascent Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2009-008-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
  15. Peter van der Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Progress: Climbing The Entrepreneurial Ladder in Europe and The US," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-070/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Mar 2010.
  16. Block, J.H. & Thurik, A.R. & van der Zwan, P.W. & Walter, S., 2010. "Business Takeover or New Venture? Individual and Environmental Determinants from a Cross-Country Study," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2010-042-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.

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