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Explaining preferences and actual involvement in self-employment: Gender and the entrepreneurial personality

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  • Verheul, Ingrid
  • Thurik, Roy
  • Grilo, Isabel
  • van der Zwan, Peter

Abstract

This paper investigates an essential aspect of the entrepreneurial personality: why women’s self-employment rates are consistently lower than those of men. It has three focal points. It discriminates between the preference for self-employment and actual involvement in self-employment using a two (probit) equation model. It makes a systematic distinction between different ways in which gender influences the preference for and actual involvement in self-employment (mediation and moderation). It includes perceived ability as a potential driver of self-employment next to risk attitude, self-employed parents and other socio-demographic drivers. A representative data set of more than 8000 individuals from 29 countries (25 EU Member States, US, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) is used (the 2004 Flash Eurobarometer survey). The findings show that women’s lower preference for becoming self-employed plays an important role in explaining their lower involvement in self-employment and that a gender effect remains that may point at gender-based obstacles to entrepreneurship.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Psychology.

Volume (Year): 33 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 325-341

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Handle: RePEc:eee:joepsy:v:33:y:2012:i:2:p:325-341

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/joep

Related research

Keywords: Entrepreneurial personality; Determinants of entrepreneurship; Gender; Latent and nascent entrepreneurship;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2011. "Personality Characteristics and the Decision to Become and Stay Self-Employed," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1113, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  2. Marit Rønsen, 2012. "The family – a barrier or motivation for female entrepreneurship?," Discussion Papers 727, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  3. Bengtsson, Ola & Sanandaji, Tino & Johannesson, Magnus, 2012. "The Psychology of the Entrepreneur and the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship," Working Paper Series 944, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 30 Oct 2013.
  4. Seda Ertac & Mehmet Y. Gurdal, 2012. "Personality, Group Decision-Making and Leadership," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1227, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
  5. Werner Bönte & Monika Piegeler, 2013. "Gender gap in latent and nascent entrepreneurship: driven by competitiveness," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 961-987, December.
  6. Saumik Paul & Vengadeshvaran Sarma, . "Economic Crisis and Female Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia," Discussion Papers 13/08, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
  7. Caliendo, Marco & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2011. "Searching for the Entrepreneurial Personality: New Evidence and Avenues for Further Research," IZA Discussion Papers 5790, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Cortés Aguilar Alexandra & Teresa Garcia-Muñoz & Ana I. Moro Egido, 2013. "Heterogeneous Self-employment and Subjective Well-Being. Evidence from Latin America," ThE Papers 13/05, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
  9. Michael Fritsch & Alexander Kritikos & Alina Sorgner, 2013. "Drivers of Self-Employment - A Multivariate Decomposition Analysis for the Case of Germany," Jena Economic Research Papers 2013-006, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  10. Simoes, Nadia & Moreira, Sandrina B. & Crespo, Nuno, 2013. "Individual Determinants of Self-Employment Entry – What Do We Really Know?," MPRA Paper 48403, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos & Miriam Wetter, 2014. "The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Not Just a Matter of Personality," CESifo Working Paper Series 4803, CESifo Group Munich.
  12. Aguilar, Alexandra Cortés & García Muñoz, Teresa M. & Moro-Egido, Ana I., 2013. "Heterogeneous self-employment and satisfaction in Latin America," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 44-61.
  13. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani, 2014. "Bridging the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Europe," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1074, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  14. Bögenhold, Dieter & Fachinger, Uwe, 2013. "Weibliche Solo-Selbstständigkeit zwischen Notwendigkeit und Innovationsherausforderung: Beobachtungen über Geschlecht und Unternehmertum in Deutschland
    [Female Solo-Self-Employment Between Necess
    ," MPRA Paper 51460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  15. Werner Boente & Monika Jarosch, 2011. "Gender Differences in Competitiveness, Risk Tolerance, and other Personality Traits: Do they contribute to the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship?," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp11012, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
  16. Marcén, Miriam, 2013. "The effect of culture on self-employment," MPRA Paper 47338, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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