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Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level

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Author Info

  • Ingrid Verheul
  • Andre van Stel

    ()

  • Roy Thurik

    ()

Abstract

Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for 29 countries this study investigates the (differential) impact of several factors on female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. These factors are derived from three streams of literature, including that on entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation and on female entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the methodological aspects of investigating (female) entrepreneurship by distinguishing between two measures of female entrepreneurship: the number of female entrepreneurs and the share of women in the total number of entrepreneurs. The first measure is used to investigate whether variables have an impact on entrepreneurship in general (influencing both the number of female and male entrepreneurs). The second measure is used to investigate whether factors have a differential relative impact on female and male entrepreneurship, i.e., whether they influence the diversity or gender composition of entrepreneurship. Findings indicate that - by and large - female and male entrepreneurial activity rates are influenced by the same factors and in the same direction. However, for some factors (e.g., unemployment, life satisfaction) we find a differential impact on female and male entrepreneurship. The present study also shows that the factors influencing the number of female entrepreneurs may be different from those influencing the share of female entrepreneurs. In this light it is important that governments are aware of what they want to accomplish (i.e., do they want to stimulate the number of female entrepreneurs or the gender composition of entrepreneurship) to be able to select appropriate policy measures.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2005-39.

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Length: 52 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2005-39

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Keywords: entrepreneurship; gender; determinants of entrepreneurship;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2009. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A200914, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  2. Andre van Stel & David Storey & Roy Thurik, 2006. "The effect of business regulations on nascent and actual entrepreneurship," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2006-04, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  3. André Stel & David Storey & A. Thurik, 2007. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 171-186, March.
  4. Subhash C. Kundu & Sunita Rani, 2007. "Personality and Attitudes of Indian Young Female Workforce: Entrepreneurial Orientation by Education and Regions," Managing Global Transitions, University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, vol. 5(3), pages 229-252.
  5. Jolanda Hessels & Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik & Peter Zwan, 2011. "Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 447-471, August.
  6. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "Political reservations and women's entrepreneurship in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6307, The World Bank.
  7. Cueto Iglesias, Begoña, 2008. "Políticas de fomento del autoempleo y creación de empleo. Un estudio de caso," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 26, pages 195-210, Septiembr.
  8. Martin Carree & Andr� van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers, 2007. "The Relation between Economic Development and Business Ownership revisited," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-022/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  9. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2011. "How Do Women Entrepreneurs Perform? Empirical Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers 23, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium.
  10. Gianni Romani & Miguel Atienza & Ernesto Amorós, 2011. "Financing needs of nascent entrepreneurs in Chile: does gender matter?," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1425, European Regional Science Association.
  11. Hannu Tervo & Mika Haapanen, 2006. "Gender Differences in Self-Employment in Finnish Regions," ERSA conference papers ersa06p380, European Regional Science Association.
  12. Nada Kobeissi, 2010. "Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy implications," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 1-35, March.
  13. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2011. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2010 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201108, EIM Business and Policy Research.

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