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Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

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  • Roy Thurik
  • Lorraine Uhlaner
  • Jan Hutjes

Abstract

The study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been domi-nated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across countries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how post-materialism explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries. Entrepreneurial activity is defined as the percent of a country's population that is self-employed, using a broad definition that also includes CEOs of both unincorporated and legally incorporated establishments. The measure for post-materialism is based upon Inglehart's four-item post-materialism index. Because of the known interactions between economic and cultural factors found in previous research, a set of economic and cultural factors is included to provide a clearer picture of the independent role post-materialism plays in prediction of self-employment levels. In particular, education, life satisfaction, church attendance and political (left or right) extremism are used as control variables in our analyses using data of 14 OECD countries over in recent period. Findings confirm the significance of post-materialism in predicting self-employment even when controlling for economic and cultural factors. However, strong co-variation between post-materialism and other cultural factors makes it difficult to clearly discriminate between the effects.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EIM Business and Policy Research in its series Scales Research Reports with number H200202.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: 27 Aug 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:h200202

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References

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  1. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. BLUM, Ulrich & DUDLEY, Leonard, 2001. "Religion and Economic Growth: Was Weber Right?," Cahiers de recherche 2001-05, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  3. Teece, David J, 1993. "The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism: Perspectives on Alfred Chandler's Scale and Scope," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(1), pages 199-225, March.
  4. Lee, Sang M. & Peterson, Suzanne J., 2000. "Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 401-416, January.
  5. Audretsch, David B, et al, 2002. "Impeded Industrial Restructuring: The Growth Penalty," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 81-97.
  6. Wennekers, Sander & Thurik, Roy, 1999. " Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 27-55, August.
  7. Ingrid Verheul & Sander Wennekers & David Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 2001. "An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  8. Audretsch, David B. & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André J. & Thurik, A. Roy, 2000. "Impeded industrial restructuring : the growth penalty," HWWA Discussion Papers 114, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  9. Tiessen, James H., 1997. "Individualism, collectivism, and entrepreneurship: A framework for international comparative research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 367-384, September.
  10. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C., 1992. "More like each other than anyone else? A cross-cultural study of entrepreneurial perceptions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 419-429, September.
  11. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Scheinberg, Sari, 1992. "Elitists, risk-takers, and rugged individualists? An exploratory analysis of cultural differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 115-135, March.
  12. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Noorderhaven, N. & Thurik, A.R. & Wennekers, A.R.M. & van Stel, A.J., 2003. "Self-Employment Across 15 European Countries:," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2003-081-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  2. Gebremeskel Gebremariam & Tesfa Gebremedhin & Peter Schaeffer & Tim Phipps & Randall Jackson, 2007. "A Spatial Model of Regional Variations in Business Growth in Appalachian States," Working Papers 200709, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University.
  3. Ingrid Verheul & Andre van Stel & Roy Thurik, 2005. "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-34, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  4. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Niels Noorderhaven, 2004. "The role of dissatisfaction and per capita income in explaining self-employment across 15 European countries," Scales Research Reports N200407, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  5. Lorraine Uhlaner & Roy Thurik, 2004. "Post-Materialism: A Cultural Factor Influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activ-ity Across Nations," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-07, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  6. Lorraine Uhlaner & Roy Thurik, 2007. "Postmaterialism influencing total entrepreneurial activity across nations," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 161-185, April.
  7. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Niels Noorderhaven, 2006. "Uncertainty avoidance and the rate of business ownership across 21 OECD countries, 1976-2004," Scales Research Reports H200605, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  8. Gebremeskel Gebremariam & Tesfa Gebremedhin & Peter Schaeffer, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of County-Level Determinants of Small Business Growth and Poverty in Appalachia: A Spatial Simultaneous-Equations Approach," Working Papers 200603, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University.
  9. Ingrid Verheul & Andre van Stel & Roy Thurik, 2004. "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship across 29 countries," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-08, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  10. Vinod, Hrishikesh D., 2006. "Should Asians demand both entrepreneurship and human rights?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 14-28, February.
  11. Nada Kobeissi, 2010. "Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy implications," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 1-35, March.
  12. Meltem Ince, 2009. "A Socio-Economic Perspective on Women Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Turkey," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 138-166.

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