Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-Employment: New Insights into the role of Gender
AbstractThis paper investigates why women’s self-employment rates are consistently lower than those of men. It has three focal points. It discriminates between the preference for self-employment and actual involvement in self-employment using a two (probit) equation model. It makes a systematic distinction between different ways in which gender influences the preference for and actual involvement in self-employment (mediation and moderation). It includes perceived ability as a potential driver of self-employment next to risk attitude, self-employed parents and other sociodemographic drivers. A representative data set of more than 8,000 individuals from 29 countries (25 EU member states, US, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) is used (the 2004 Flash Eurobarometer survey). The findings show that women’s lower preference for becoming self-employed plays an important role in explaining their lower involvement in self-employment and that a gender effect remains that may point at gender-based obstacles to entrepreneurship.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by EIM Business and Policy Research in its series Scales Research Reports with number H200803.
Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 12 Apr 2010
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- Verheul, I. & Thurik, A.R. & Grilo, I., 2008. "Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-Employment: New Insights into the Role of Gender," Research Paper ERS-2008-003-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
- NEP-ALL-2008-06-13 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2008-06-13 (Business Economics)
- NEP-ENT-2008-06-13 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-LAB-2008-06-13 (Labour Economics)
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- Andersson Joona, Pernilla & Wadensjö, Eskil, 2008. "A Gender Perspective on Self-Employment Entry and Performance as Self-Employed," IZA Discussion Papers 3581, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Dawson, Christopher & Henley, Andrew, 2012. "Gender, Risk and Venture Creation Intentions," IZA Discussion Papers 6947, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Tatiana Tsyganova & Galina Shirokova, 2010. "Gender Differences In Entrepreneurship: Evidence From Gem Data," Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, Faculty of Economics, Vilnius University, vol. 1(1).
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