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Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

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  • Uhlaner, L.M.
  • Thurik, A.R.
  • Hutjes, J.

Abstract

The study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how post-materialism explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries. Entrepreneurial activity is defined as the percent of a country?s popula-tion that is self-employed, using a broad definition that also includes CEOs of both unincorporated and legally incorporated establishments. The measure for post-materialism is based upon Ingle-hart?s four-item post-materialism index. Because of the known interactions between economic and cultural factors found in previous research, a set of economic and cultural factors is included to provide a clearer picture of the independent role post-materialism plays in prediction of self-employment levels. In particular, education, life satisfaction, church attendance and political (left or right) extremism are used as control variables in our analyses using data of 14 OECD countries over in recent period. Findings confirm the significance of post-materialism in predicting self-employment even when controlling for economic and cultural factors. However, strong covariation between post-materialism and other cultural factors makes it difficult to clearly discriminate be-tween the effects.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam in its series ERIM Report Series Research in Management with number ERS-2002-62-STR.

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Date of creation: 25 Jun 2002
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Handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:208

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Keywords: comparative studies of countries; cultural economics; entrepreneurship; macro-economic analyses of economic development;

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References

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  1. Teece, David J, 1993. "The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism: Perspectives on Alfred Chandler's Scale and Scope," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(1), pages 199-225, March.
  2. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C., 1992. "More like each other than anyone else? A cross-cultural study of entrepreneurial perceptions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 419-429, September.
  4. Audretsch, David B, et al, 2002. "Impeded Industrial Restructuring: The Growth Penalty," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 81-97.
  5. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
  6. Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Ingrid Verheul & David Audretsch, 2001. "An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship: policies, institutions and culture," Scales Research Reports H200012, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  7. BLUM, Ulrich & DUDLEY, Leonard, 2001. "Religion and Economic Growth: Was Weber Right?," Cahiers de recherche 2001-05, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  8. Tiessen, James H., 1997. "Individualism, collectivism, and entrepreneurship: A framework for international comparative research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 367-384, September.
  9. Wennekers, Sander & Thurik, Roy, 1999. " Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 27-55, August.
  10. Audretsch, David B. & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André J. & Thurik, A. Roy, 2000. "Impeded industrial restructuring : the growth penalty," HWWA Discussion Papers 114, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  11. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Scheinberg, Sari, 1992. "Elitists, risk-takers, and rugged individualists? An exploratory analysis of cultural differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 115-135, March.
  12. Lee, Sang M. & Peterson, Suzanne J., 2000. "Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 401-416, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Gebremeskel Gebremariam & Tesfa Gebremedhin & Peter Schaeffer, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of County-Level Determinants of Small Business Growth and Poverty in Appalachia: A Spatial Simultaneous-Equations Approach," Working Papers 200603, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University.
  2. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul, 2006. "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level," Scales Research Reports N200510, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  3. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul, 2004. "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship across 29 countries," Scales Research Reports N200403, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  4. Roy Thurik & Lorraine Uhlaner, 2004. "Post-Materialism: A Cultural Factor influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations," Scales Research Reports N200321, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  5. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2007. "Uncertainty avoidance and the rate of business ownership across 21 OECD countries, 1976–2004," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 133-160, April.
  6. Nada Kobeissi, 2010. "Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy implications," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 1-35, March.
  7. Gebremeskel Gebremariam & Tesfa Gebremedhin & Peter Schaeffer & Tim Phipps & Randall Jackson, 2007. "A Spatial Model of Regional Variations in Business Growth in Appalachian States," Working Papers 200709, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University.
  8. Meltem Ince, 2009. "A Socio-Economic Perspective on Women Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Turkey," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 138-166.
  9. Lorraine Uhlaner & Roy Thurik, 2005. "Post-Materialism Influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity Across Nations," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-20, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  10. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Niels Noorderhaven, 2004. "The role of dissatisfaction and per capita income in explaining self-employment across 15 European countries," Scales Research Reports N200407, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  11. Noorderhaven, N. & Thurik, A.R. & Wennekers, A.R.M. & van Stel, A.J., 2003. "Self-Employment Across 15 European Countries:," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2003-081-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  12. Vinod, Hrishikesh D., 2006. "Should Asians demand both entrepreneurship and human rights?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 14-28, February.

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