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Explaining Female and Male Entrepreneurship at the Country Level

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Author Info

  • Verheul, I.
  • van Stel, A.J.
  • Thurik, A.R.

Abstract

Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for 29 countries this study investigates the (differential) impact of several factors on female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. These factors are derived from three streams of literature, including that on entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation and on female entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the methodological aspects of investigating (female) entrepreneurship by distinguishing between two measures of female entrepreneurship: the number of female entrepreneurs and the share of women in the total number of entrepreneurs. The first measure is used to investigate whether variables have an impact on entrepreneurship in general (influencing both the number of female and male entrepreneurs). The second measure is used to investigate whether factors have a differential relative impact on female and male entrepreneurship, i.e., whether they influence the diversity or gender composition of entrepreneurship. Findings indicate that – by and large – female and male entrepreneurial activity rates are influenced by the same factors and in the same direction. However, for some factors (e.g., unemployment, life satisfaction) we find a differential impact on female and male entrepreneurship. The present study also shows that the factors influencing the number of female entrepreneurs may be different from those influencing the share of female entrepreneurs. In this light it is important that governments are aware of what they want to accomplish (i.e., do they want to stimulate the number of female entrepreneurs or the gender composition of entrepreneurship) to be able to select appropriate policy measures.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam in its series ERIM Report Series Research in Management with number ERS-2005-089-ORG.

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Date of creation: 19 Dec 2005
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Handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:7172

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Postal: RSM Erasmus University & Erasmus School of Economics, PoBox 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam
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Keywords: Determinants of Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurship; Gender;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Florian Noseleit, 2014. "The impact of childcare enrollment on women’s selection into self-employment," Working Papers 2014/15, Maastricht School of Management.
  2. Nada Kobeissi, 2010. "Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy implications," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 1-35, March.
  3. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2011. "How Do Women Entrepreneurs Perform? Empirical Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers 23, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium.
  4. Andre van Stel & David Storey & Roy Thurik, 2006. "The effect of business regulations on nascent and actual entrepreneurship," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2006-04, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  5. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "Political reservations and women's entrepreneurship in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6307, The World Bank.
  6. Gianni Romani & Miguel Atienza & Ernesto Amorós, 2011. "Financing needs of nascent entrepreneurs in Chile: does gender matter?," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1425, European Regional Science Association.
  7. van Stel, A.J. & Storey, D. & Thurik, A.R., 2006. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2006-052-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
  8. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2011. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2010 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201108, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  9. Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2009. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A200914, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  10. Jolanda Hessels & Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik & Peter Zwan, 2011. "Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 447-471, August.
  11. Axel Dreher & Martin Gassebner, 2013. "Greasing the wheels? The impact of regulations and corruption on firm entry," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 155(3), pages 413-432, June.
  12. Hannu Tervo & Mika Haapanen, 2006. "Gender Differences in Self-Employment in Finnish Regions," ERSA conference papers ersa06p380, European Regional Science Association.
  13. Cueto Iglesias, Begoña, 2008. "Políticas de fomento del autoempleo y creación de empleo. Un estudio de caso," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 26, pages 195-210, Septiembr.
  14. Martin Carree & Andr� van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers, 2007. "The Relation between Economic Development and Business Ownership revisited," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-022/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  15. Jose L. Gonzalez-Pernia & Iñaki Peña-Legazkue, 2012. "Regional FDI, technological knowledge and Export-Oriented Entrepreneurs in Spain," ERSA conference papers ersa12p912, European Regional Science Association.
  16. Subhash C. Kundu & Sunita Rani, 2007. "Personality and Attitudes of Indian Young Female Workforce: Entrepreneurial Orientation by Education and Regions," Managing Global Transitions, University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, vol. 5(3), pages 229-252.

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