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Business Accomplishments, Gender And Entrepreneurial Self-Image

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  • Ingrid Verheul

    ()

  • Lorraine Uhlaner

    ()

  • Roy Thurik

    ()

Abstract

Drawing on Bem's psychological theory of self-perception, this paper presents and tests a model that examines the impact of business accomplishments and gender on entrepreneurial self-image and explores the definition of entrepreneurship according to Vesper's entrepreneurial typology. Regression techniques are used to identify those business accomplishments that university alumni associate with self-perceptions of entrepreneurship. Experience as a small business person (founding, running, and/or owning a small business) most clearly predicts entrepreneurial self-image. Results also support predictions of both direct and indirect effects of gender as well as direct effects of education and business degree. Results of a separate expert panel study are used to rank business accomplishments according to degree of entrepreneurship. Results of both studies reveal stark contrasts in the implied definition of entrepreneurship between entrepreneurship experts (academic and practitioner alike) and the general business community (as represented by the alumni). This raises questions about the meaning of the term "entrepreneurship", what the word "entrepreneur", in particular, conveys to the general public, and the implications for practice and future research.

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Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2004-10.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2004-10

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References

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  1. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2005. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-24, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  2. Tatiana Tsyganova & Galina Shirokova, 2010. "Gender Differences In Entrepreneurship: Evidence From Gem Data," Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, Faculty of Economics, Vilnius University, vol. 1(1).
  3. Hoang, Ha & Gimeno, Javier, 2010. "Becoming a founder: How founder role identity affects entrepreneurial transitions and persistence in founding," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 41-53, January.
  4. Verheul, I. & Thurik, A.R. & Grilo, I., 2008. "Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-Employment: New Insights into the Role of Gender," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2008-003-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  5. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
  6. Philipp Koellinger & Matthijs Loos & Patrick Groenen & A. Thurik & Fernando Rivadeneira & Frank Rooij & André Uitterlinden & Albert Hofman, 2010. "Genome-wide association studies in economics and entrepreneurship research: promises and limitations," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 1-18, July.
  7. Ingrid Verheul & Linda van Mil, 2008. "What Determines the Growth Ambition of Dutch Early-Stage Entrepreneurs?," Scales Research Reports H200811, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  8. Wu, Chih-Wen, 2013. "Global-innovation strategy modeling of biotechnology industry," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(10), pages 1994-1999.
  9. Lorraine Uhlaner & Roberto Floren & Jurgen Geerlings, 2007. "Owner Commitment and Relational Governance in the Privately-Held Firm: An Empirical Study," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 275-293, October.
  10. Klyver, Kim & Nielsen, Suna Løwe & Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard, 2013. "Women's self-employment: An act of institutional (dis)integration? A multilevel, cross-country study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 474-488.
  11. Barbara Orser & Catherine Elliott & Joanne Leck, 2013. "Entrepreneurial Feminists: Perspectives About Opportunity Recognition and Governance," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 115(2), pages 241-257, June.
  12. Carolina Ortiz Riaga & Yenni Viviana Duque Orozco & David Camargo Mayorga, 2008. "Una revisión a la investigación en emprendimiento femenino," REVISTA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ECONÓMICAS, UNIVERSIDAD MILITAR NUEVA GRANADA.
  13. Nada Kobeissi, 2010. "Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy implications," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 1-35, March.
  14. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy & Grilo, Isabel & van der Zwan, Peter, 2012. "Explaining preferences and actual involvement in self-employment: Gender and the entrepreneurial personality," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 325-341.

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